Original Research ARTICLE
The gut microbiome and metabolome of two riparian communities in the Amazon
- 1Vale Technological Institute (ITV), Brazil
- 2Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University, Brazil
- 3Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- 4University of Victoria, Canada
- 5University of Groningen, Netherlands
- 6National School of Public Health, Brazil
During the last decades it has become increasingly clear that the microbes that live on and in humans are critical for health. The communities they form, termed microbiomes, are involved in fundamental processes such as the maturation and constant regulation of the immune system. Additionally, they constitute a strong defense barrier to invading pathogens, and are also intricately linked to nutrition. The parameters that affect the establishment and maintenance of these microbial communities are diverse, and include the genetic background, mode of birth, nutrition, hygiene, and host lifestyle in general. Here, we describe the characterization of the gut microbiome of individuals living in the Amazon, and the comparison of these microbial communities to those found in individuals from an urban, industrialized setting. Our results showed striking differences in microbial communities from these two types of populations. Additionally, we used high-throughput metabolomics to study the chemical ecology of the gut environment and found significant metabolic changes between the two populations. Although we cannot point out a single cause for the microbial and metabolic changes observed between Amazonian and urban individuals, they are likely to include dietary differences as well as diverse patterns of environmental exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first description of gut microbial and metabolic profiles in Amazonian populations, and it provides a starting point for thorough characterizations of the impact of individual environmental conditions on the human microbiome and metabolome.
Keywords: gut microbiome, Riparian communities, Amazon, high-throughput sequencing, metabolic prediction, Metabolomics
Received: 28 Mar 2019;
Accepted: 15 Aug 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Pires, Hardoim, Miranda, Secco, Lobo, Carvalho, Han, Borchers, Ferreira, Falcão Salles, Domingues and Antunes. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Dr. Regina M. Domingues, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-901, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Luis Caetano M. Antunes, National School of Public Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, email@example.com