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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Neurol. | doi: 10.3389/fneur.2019.00932


  • 1Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Italy
  • 2Department of Health Sciences, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Italy
  • 3Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, School of Medicine, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy
  • 4Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy
  • 5Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Italy
  • 6Department of Legal, Historical, Economic and Social Sciences, University of Magna Graecia, Italy
  • 7Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Italy
  • 8Department of Medical, Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies G.F. Ingrassia, University of Catania, Italy
  • 9Institute of Ophthalmology, University of Foggia, Italy
  • 10Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Italy
  • 11Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Perugia, Italy
  • 12Biomedical Research Institute of New Jersey, United States
  • 13Neurology Research, MidAtlantic Neonatology Associates, United States
  • 14Neuropathology Research, Biomedical Research Institute of New Jersey, United States

Children with migraine headaches appear to have a range of sleep disturbances. The aim of the present study was to assess the NREM sleep instability in a population of school-aged individuals affected by migraine without aura (MoA).
33 children with MoA (20 males, 13 females, mean age 10.45±2.06 years) underwent to overnight PSG recordings and Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP) analyses accordingly with international criteria. MoA group showed a reduction in sleep duration parameters (TIB, SPT, TST; p≤0.001 for all) and in arousal index during REM sleep and an increase in awakenings per hour (AWK/h) (p=0.008). In particular, MoA children showed a reduced CAP rate% (p≤0.001), CAP rate% in S1 (p≤0.001) and CAP rate% in SWS (p=0.004) vs. control subjects (C).
Moreover, A phases distribution were characterized by a reduction in slow wave components (total number CAP A1%, CAP A1 index) (p≤0.001) and an increase of fast components (total number of CAP A2% and CAP A3%) representation in MoA vs. C. Moreover, MoA children showed an increased A1 and A2 mean duration (p≤0.001). Our findings show a poor sleep quality and lower NREM lower sleep instability associated with MoA in children.

Keywords: Migraine without Aura, NREM sleep instability, Cyclic Alternating Pattern analysis, sleep macrostructure, full overnight polysomnography

Received: 31 Dec 2018; Accepted: 12 Aug 2019.

Edited by:

Massimiliano Valeriani, Bambino Gesù Children Hospital (IRCCS), Italy

Reviewed by:

Maurizio Elia, Oasi Maria SS. Association ONLUS (IRCCS), Italy
Valerio Brunetti, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy  

Copyright: © 2019 Roccella, Marotta, Operto, Smirni, Precenzano, Bitetti, Messina, Sessa, DI MIZIO, Loreto, Salerno, Russo, Murabito, Gallai, Esposito, Iacono and Carotenuto. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: MD, PhD. Giovanni Messina, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, 71121, Apulia, Italy,