Original Research ARTICLE
Cotinine plus krill oil decreased depressive behavior, and increased astrocytes survival in the hippocampus of mice subjected to restraint stress
- 1Universidad San Sebastián, Chile
- 2Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia
- 3Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Chile
- 4Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Spain
- 5Research & Development, Bay Pines VA Healthcare System, United States
Restraint stress (RS) is a condition affecting millions of people worldwide. The investigation of new therapies to alleviate the consequences of prolonged RS is much needed. Cotinine, a nicotine-derivative, has shown to prevent the decrease in cerebral synaptic density, working memory deficits, anxiety, and depressive-like behavior after prolonged restraint stress (RS) in mice. Furthermore, post-treatment with cotinine reduced the adverse effects of chronic RS on astrocyte survival and architecture. On the other hand, the nutritional supplement krill oil (KO), has shown to be beneficial in decreasing depressive-like behavior and oxidative stress. In this study, in the search for effective preventative treatments to be used in people subjected to reduced mobility, the effect of co-treatment with cotinine plus KO in mice subjected to prolonged RS was investigated. The results show that cotinine plus KO prevented the loss of astrocytes, the appearance of depressive-like behavior and cognitive impairment induced by RS. The use of the combination of cotinine plus KO was more effective than cotinine alone in preventing the depressive-like behavior in the restrained mice. The potential use of this combination to alleviate the psychological effects of reduced mobility is discussed.
Keywords: Depression;, Cotinine, Anxiety, krill oil, Astrocytes, restraint stress
Received: 24 Jul 2018;
Accepted: 30 Nov 2018.
Edited by:Rubem C. Guedes, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil
Reviewed by:Roberta M. Cysneiros, Mackenzie Presbyterian University, Brazil
Nafisa M. Jadavji, Carleton University, Canada
Copyright: © 2018 Mendoza, Pérez-Urrutia, Alvares-Ricartez, Barreto, Perez-Ordaz and Echeverria Moran. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Ms. Nathalie Alvares-Ricartez, Universidad San Sebastián, Santiago, 7500000, Santiago Metropolitan Region (RM), Chile, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Valentina Echeverria Moran, Bay Pines VA Healthcare System, Research & Development, Bay Pines, 33744, FL, United States, email@example.com