Potent Efficacy and Mechanism of Panax Ginseng in Experimental Stroke
- 1Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease, University of Florida, United States
- 2Departments of Anesthesiology, Neurology, Psychiatry and Neuroscience, University of Florida, United States
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability worldwide. However, effective therapeutic approaches are still limited. The disruption of blood supply triggers complicated temporal and spatial events involving hemodynamic, biochemical, and neurophysiologic changes, eventually leading to pathological disturbance and diverse clinical symptoms. Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a popular herb distributed in East Asia, has been extensively used as medicinal and nutritional supplements for a variety of disorders worldwide. In recent years, ginseng has displayed attractive beneficial effects in distinct neurological disorders including stroke, involving multiple protective mechanisms. In this article, we thoroughly reviewed the literature on ginseng studies in experimental stroke published before June 30, 2018, particularly focusing on the in vivo evidence on the preventive or therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms of ginseng in various stroke models of mice and rats. We summarized the efficacy of ginseng and ginsenosides on short- and long-term stroke outcomes, as well as the underlying mechanisms. This review provides new insights into the comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological activities of ginseng that benefit stroke prevention and recovery.
Keywords: Ginsenosides, Global cerebral ischemia (GCI), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), permanent MCAO, Stroke, Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), Transient MCAO
Received: 31 Aug 2018;
Accepted: 13 Mar 2019.
Edited by:Rubem C. Guedes, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil
Reviewed by:Maged Harraz, Johns Hopkins University, United States
Guo-qing Zheng, The Second Affiliated Hospital & Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University
Hak-Jae Kim, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, South Korea
Copyright: © 2019 Liu, Anderson, Fernandez and Dore. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Sylvain Dore, University of Florida, Departments of Anesthesiology, Neurology, Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Gainesville, 32610, Florida, United States, email@example.com