Original Research ARTICLE
Time-Variant Linear Discriminant Analysis Improves Hand Gesture and Finger Movement Decoding for Invasive Brain-Computer Interfaces
- 1g.tec medical engineering GmbH, Austria
- 2Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria
- 3Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Russia
- 4Asahikawa Medical University, Japan
- 5Guger Technologies (Austria), Austria
Invasive brain-computer interfaces yield remarkable performance in a multitude of applications. For classification experiments, high-gamma bandpower features and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are commonly used due to simplicity and robustness. However, LDA is static in nature and not suited to account for transient information that is typically present in high-gamma features. To resolve this issue, we here present an extension of LDA to the time-variant feature space. We call this method time-variant linear discriminant analysis (TVLDA). It intrinsically provides a feature reduction stage, which makes external approaches thereto obsolete, such as feature selection techniques or common spatial patterns (CSPs). As well, we propose a time-domain whitening stage which equalizes for the pronounced 1/f-shape of the typical brain-wave spectrum.
We evaluated our proposed architecture based on recordings from 15 epilepsy patients with temporarily implanted subdural grids, who participated in additional research experiments besides clinical treatment. The experiments featured two different motor tasks involving three high-level gestures and individual finger movement. We used log-transformed bandpower features from the high-gamma band (50 Hz to 300 Hz, excluding power-line harmonics) for classification.
On average, whitening improved the classification performance by about 11%. On whitened data, TVLDA outperformed LDA with feature selection by 11.8%, LDA with CSPs by 13.9%, and regularized LDA with vectorized features by 16.4%. At the same time, TVLDA only required one or two internal features to achieve this. TVLDA provides stable results even if very few trials are available. It is easy to implement, fully automatic and deterministic. Due to its low complexity, TVLDA is suited for real-time brain-computer interfaces. Training is done in less than a second.
TVLDA performed particularly well in experiments with data from high-density electrode arrays. For example, the three high-level gestures were correctly identified at a rate of 99% over all subjects. Similarly, the decoding accuracy of individual fingers was 96% on average over all subjects. To our knowledge, these mean accuracies are the highest ever reported for three-class and five-class motor-control BCIs.
Keywords: Brain-computer interface, electrocorticography (ECoG), movement decoding, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Spectral whitening
Received: 28 Feb 2019;
Accepted: 12 Aug 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Gruenwald, Znobishchev, Kapeller, Kamada, Scharinger and Guger. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Mr. Johannes Gruenwald, g.tec medical engineering GmbH, Schiedlberg, 4521, Austria, firstname.lastname@example.org