Original Research ARTICLE
Auditory predictions and prediction errors in response to self-initiated vowels
- 1University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
- 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
- 3Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Netherlands
- 4Leipzig University, Germany
It has been suggested that speech production is accomplished by an internal forward model, reducing processing activity directed to self-produced speech in the auditory cortex. The current study uses an established N1-suppression paradigm comparing self- and externally-initiated natural speech sounds to answer two questions:
(1) Are forward predictions generated to process complex speech sounds, such as vowels, initiated via a button press?
(2) Are prediction errors regarding self-initiated deviant vowels reflected in the corresponding ERP components?
Results confirm an N1-suppression in response to self-initiated speech sounds. Furthermore, our results suggest that predictions leading to the N1-suppression effect are specific, as self-initiated deviant vowels do not elicit an N1-suppression effect. Rather, self-initiated deviant vowels elicit an enhanced N2b and P3a compared to externally-generated deviants, externally-generated standard, or self-initiated standards, again confirming prediction specificity.
Results show that prediction errors are salient in self-initiated auditory speech sounds, which may lead to more efficient error correction in speech production.
Keywords: N1 attenuation, Self-generated speech, Forward prediction, Prediction error, Auditory Perception, Deviants, oddball
Received: 14 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 10 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Knolle, Schwartze, Schröger and Kotz. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Franziska Knolle, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, firstname.lastname@example.org