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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Neurosci. | doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.01251

Microstate changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease in persons with Down syndrome

 Christian S. Musaeus1*, Lise C. Salem1, Troels W. Kjær2, 3 and Gunhild Waldemar1, 2
  • 1Danish Dementia Research Centre, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, Denmark
  • 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 3Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Down Syndrome (DS) is associated with development of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, due to considerable heterogeneity in intellectual function among persons with DS, it is difficult to assess whether a person with DS has developed dementia due to AD (DS-AD). EEG spectral power has previously shown very promising results with increased slowing in DS-AD compared to DS. However, another technique called microstates may be used to assess whole-brain dynamics and has to our knowledge not previously been investigated in either DS or DS-AD. The aim of the current study was to assess whether microstates could be used to differentiate between adults with DS, and DS-AD. We included EEGs from 10 persons with DS and 15 persons with DS-AD in the analysis. For the microstate analyses, we calculated four global maps, which were then back-fitted to all the EEGs. Lastly, we extracted the duration, occurrence, and coverage for each of the microstates. Here, we found the four archetypical maps as has previously been reported in the literature. We did not find any significant difference between DS and DS-AD but the largest difference in microstate duration between DS and DS-AD was found in microstate A and D. These findings are in line with structural MR studies showing that both the frontal and temporal lobes are affected in persons with DS-AD. Microstates may potentially serve as a diagnostic marker, but larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Keywords: Down Syndrome, EEG, Alzheimer's disease, Microstates, diagnostic

Received: 29 Jun 2019; Accepted: 05 Nov 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Musaeus, Salem, Kjær and Waldemar. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Mx. Christian S. Musaeus, Danish Dementia Research Centre, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, christian.sandoee.musaeus@regionh.dk