A Pathogenic Relationship of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Retinopathy of Prematurity? A Review of Angiogenic Mediators in Both Diseases
- 1Tufts University School of Medicine, United States
- 2Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, United States
- 3Pediatrics, Division of Newborn Medicine, Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, United States
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are common and significant morbidities of prematurely born infants. These diseases have in common altered and pathologic vascular formation in the face of incomplete organ development. Therefore, it is reasonable to question whether factors affecting angiogenesis could have a joint pathogenic role for both diseases. Inhibition or induced expression of a single angiogenic factor is unlikely to be 100% causative or protective of either of BPD or ROP. It is more likely that interactions of multiple factors leading to disordered angiogenesis are present, increasing the likelihood of common pathways in both diseases. This review explores this possibility by assessing the evidence showing involvement of specific angiogenic factors in the vascular development and maldevelopment in each disease. Theoretical interactions of specific factors mutually contributing to BPD and ROP are proposed and, where possible, a timeline of the proposed relationships between BPD and ROP is developed. It is hoped that future research will be inspired by the theories put forth in this review to enhance the understanding of the pathogenesis in both diseases.
Keywords: Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, Retinopathy of Prematurity, vasculogenesis, prematurity, Angiogenesis
Received: 06 Nov 2017;
Accepted: 16 Apr 2018.
Edited by:Juan Sanchez-Esteban, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, United States
Reviewed by:Vineet Bhandari, College of Medicine, Drexel University, United States
Naveed Hussain, University of Connecticut Health Center, United States
Copyright: © 2018 Stark, Dammann, Nielsen and Volpe. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. MaryAnn Volpe, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States, email@example.com