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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Pediatr. | doi: 10.3389/fped.2019.00290

Sex differences between female and male newborn piglets during asphyxia, resuscitation, and recovery

  • 1University of Alberta, Canada
  • 2Pediatrics / Neonatology, University of Alberta, Canada

Background
Male and female newborns have differences in their fetal development, fetal-to-neonatal transition, and postnatal morbidity. However, the cardiovascular fetal-to-neonatal adaption is similar between sexes. No study has examined sex differences in newborns during hypoxia, asphyxia, cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, or post-resuscitation recovery.
Methods
Secondary analysis (two previous publications and two studies currently under peer-review) of 110 term newborn mixed breed piglets (1-3 days of age, weighing 2.0±0.2kg), which were exposed to 30min normocapnic hypoxia followed by asphyxia until asystole, which was achieved by disconnecting the ventilator and clamping the endotracheal tube. This was followed by cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. For the analysis piglets were divided into female and male groups. Cardiac function, carotid blood flow, and cerebral and renal oxygenation were continuously recorded throughout the experiment.
Results
A total of 35/41 (85%) female and 54/69 (78%) male piglets resuscitated achieved ROSC (p=0.881). The median (IQR) time to achieve return of spontaneous circulation in females and males was 111 (80-228) sec and 106 (80-206)sec (p=0.875), respectively. The 4-hour survival rate was similar between females and males with 28/35 (80%) and 49/54 (91%) piglets surviving (p=0.241), respectively.
Conclusions
No difference between female and male newborn piglets was observed during hypoxia, asphyxia, resuscitation, and post-resuscitation recovery.

Keywords: Infant, sex differences, Asphyxia, Chest compressions, neonatal resuscitation

Received: 20 Dec 2018; Accepted: 27 Jun 2019.

Edited by:

Giuseppe Buonocore, University of Siena, Italy

Reviewed by:

Ulrich H. Thome, Leipzig University, Germany
Marc R. Mendler, Ulm University Medical Center, Germany
Gavino Faa, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Cagliari, Italy  

Copyright: © 2019 De La Garde, Cheung, Lee, O'Reilly and Schmolzer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Georg Schmolzer, University of Alberta, Pediatrics / Neonatology, Edmonton, T5H 3V9, Alberta, Canada, georg.schmoelzer@me.com