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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Pharmacol. | doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01016

Bio-inspired silver nanoparticles impose metabolic and epigenetic toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae

 Piyoosh K. Babele1*, Ashwani K. Singh2 and  Amit Shrivastava3
  • 1Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal, India
  • 2School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
  • 3Department of Physics, Tilak Dhari Post Graduate College, India

AgNPs have many applications in various fields including biomedical applications. Due to a broad range of applications, they considered as a leading fraction of manufactured nanoparticles. AgNPs are synthesized by different types of chemical and biological (green) methods. Previously, biologically synthesized AgNPs were considered safe to the environment and humans. However, new toxicity evidence has initiated a more careful assessment to delineate the toxicity mechanisms associated with these nanoparticles. This study also demonstrates the use of aqueous gooseberry extract for AgNPs preparation in time and cost effective way. UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) methods confirm the formation of AgNPs, with an average size between 50-100 nm. Untargeted 1H-NMR based metabolomics revealed many folds up- and down-regulation in the concentration of 55 different classes of annotated metabolites in AgNPs exposed yeast S. cerevisiae cells. On the basis of their chemical nature and cellular functions these metabolites are classified as amino acids, glycolysis and the TCA cycle, organic acids, nucleotide metabolism, urea cycle and lipid metabolism. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the genes involved in oxidative stress mitigation maintain their expression levels while the genes of the TCA cycle and lipid metabolism shows drastic down-regulations upon AgNPs exposure. Moreover, they can induce alteration in the histone epigenetic marks by altering the methylation and acetylation of selected histone H3 and H4 proteins. Altogether, we concluded that selected dose of biologically synthesized AgNPs impose toxicity by modulating the trancriptome, epigenome and metabolome of eukaryotic cells which leads to the disequilibrium in cellular metabolism leading to toxicity.

Keywords: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), Nanotoxicity, 1H-NMR, Metabolomics, Histones, S. cerevisiae

Received: 26 Apr 2019; Accepted: 09 Aug 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Babele, Singh and Shrivastava. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Piyoosh K. Babele, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal, Bhopal, 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India, piyoosh2006@yahoo.co.in