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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Public Health | doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2019.00338

Anthropometric and Biochemical Predictors for Hypertension in a Cross-Sectional Study in Zanzibar, Tanzania

 Lara K. Brackmann1, Christoph Buck1, Maria A. Nyangasa1, Soerge Kelm2, Mohammed Sheikh3 and  Antje Hebestreit1*
  • 1Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology (LG), Germany
  • 2University of Bremen, Germany
  • 3State University of Zanzibar, Tanzania

Background: Aim of this study was to describe the proportion of hypertension among Zanzibari of different age-groups and to detect possible correlates of this non-communicable disease.
Methods: In 2013 a cross-sectional survey was conducted in Unguja Island, Zanzibar. A total of 235 randomly selected households, including 1,229 (2 to 95 years) eligible study participants, were examined. Association between objectively assessed obesity markers, salt intake and hypertension were investigated. Estimates of 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion from a single morning spot urine specimen were calculated and used as surrogate for salt intake. The association between overweight/obesity and hypertension in different age-groups was assessed in multilevel logistic regression models. Further associations between salt intake and hypertension were analyzed.
Results: Measures of systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as proportion of overweight/obesity and hypertension both increased with age. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with hypertension in adults. Moreover, thinness seems to be associated with hypertension as well. We observed a significantly reduced chance of hypertension for higher urinary sodium-to-potassium compared to a lower ratio in children.
Conclusion: Overweight/obesity and hypertension were highly prevalent (> 47 % of adults > 40 years are overweight or obese and > 69 % are hypertensive in the same age group) in our sample. Weight status was confirmed as a correlate of high blood pressure in our sample from Zanzibar, Tanzania. To early and effectively prevent related severe cardiovascular outcomes, screening strategies but also monitoring strategies are required for this population.

Keywords: Blood Pressure, body fat, Body Mass Index, Hypertension, salt, Sub-Sahara Africa, Waist Circumference

Received: 20 Nov 2018; Accepted: 29 Oct 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Brackmann, Buck, Nyangasa, Kelm, Sheikh and Hebestreit. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Antje Hebestreit, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology (LG), Bremen, Germany,