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Front. Vet. Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00024

Establishment of a bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 intranasal challenge model for assessing vaccine efficacy

 Rebecca Strong1*,  Simon P. Graham1, Anna La Rocca1, Rudiger Raue2, Ilse Vangeel2 and  Falko Steinbach1
  • 1Virology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency, United Kingdom
  • 2Veterinary Medicine Research & Development, Zoetis, Belgium

The objective of this study was to develop a bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 (BVDV-2) challenge model suitable for evaluation of efficacy of BVDV vaccines; a model that mimics natural infection and induces clear leucopoenia and viraemia. Clinical, haematological and virological parameters were evaluated after infection of two age groups of calves (3 months and 9 months) with two BVDV-2 strains (1362727 and 502643). Calves became pyrexic between 8-9 days post inoculation and exhibited symptoms such as nasal discharge, mild depression, cough and inappetance. Leukopenia with associated lymphopenia and neutropenia was evident in all groups with lowest leukocyte and lymphocyte counts reached 8dpi and granulocyte counts between 11 and 16 dpi, dependent on the strain and age of the calves. A more severe thrombocytopeania was seen in those animals inoculated with strain 1362727. Leukocyte and nasal swab samples were positive by virus isolation, as early as 3 dpi and 2 dpi respectively, independent of the inocula used. All calves seroconverted with high levels of BVDV-2 neutralising antibodies. BVDV RNA was evident as late as 90 dpi and provides the first evidence of the presence of replicating virus long after recovery from BVDV-2 experimental infection. In summary, moderate disease can be induced after experimental infection of calves with a low titre (104.8 or 105.0 TCID50) of virulent BVDV-2, with leucopoenia, thrombocytopoenia, viraemia and virus shedding. These strains represent an attractive model to assess the protective efficacy of existing and new vaccines against BVDV-2.

Keywords: BVDV-2, experimental infection, Pathogenesis, virus persistence, Challenge model

Received: 23 Oct 2017; Accepted: 05 Feb 2018.

Edited by:

Zhenhai Chen, Yangzhou University, China

Reviewed by:

Matthias Schweizer, University of Bern, Switzerland
Birke A. Tews, Friedrich Loeffler Institute Greifswald, Germany  

Copyright: © 2018 Strong, Graham, La Rocca, Raue, Vangeel and Steinbach. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Rebecca Strong, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Virology Department, Addlestone, United Kingdom, rebecca.strong@apha.gsi.gov.uk