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Coccidian Parasites in Livestock and Small Animals

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Front. Vet. Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00054

Clinical Toxoplasmosis in Dogs and Cats: An Update

  • 1Complutense University of Madrid, Spain
  • 2Universidade Santo Amaro, Brazil
  • 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Brazil

Toxoplasmosis is caused by the globally distributed protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (phylum Apicomplexa); the disease can be clinically important for almost all homeothermic animals, including birds and humans. Toxoplasmosis course involves general clinical signs, such as fever, anorexia, or dyspnea, and more specific signs with neural, respiratory, cutaneous or ocular involvement. Because of the wide range of clinical signs, the diagnosis in domestic and pet animals can be complicated. Hence, this review aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of some scarcely discussed aspects of toxoplasmosis, such as ocular and cutaneous manifestations, congenital infections, influence of T. gondii genotype on clinical toxoplasmosis, and recent findings regarding differential diagnosis. This review could be of special interest to clinicians and researchers.

Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Dogs, Cats, clinical disease, Symptoms, Genotype, differential diagnosis

Received: 29 Oct 2018; Accepted: 07 Feb 2019.

Edited by:

Luís P. Gondim, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil

Reviewed by:

Quan Liu, School of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University, China
Si-Yang Huang, Yangzhou University, China  

Copyright: © 2019 Calero-Bernal and GENNARI. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Rafael Calero-Bernal, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain,