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Review ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Vet. Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00292

Large Animal Models For Anterior Cruciate Ligament Research

  • 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, United States
  • 2Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, United States
  • 3Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, United States

Large animal (non-rodent mammal) models are commonly used in ACL research, but no species is currently considered the gold standard. Important considerations when selecting a large animal model include anatomical differences, the natural course of ACL pathology in that species, and biomechanical differences between humans and the chosen model. This article summarizes recent reports related to anatomy, pathology, and biomechanics of the ACL for large animal species (dog, goat, sheep, pig, and rabbit) commonly used in ACL research. Each species has unique features and benefits as well as potential drawbacks, which are highlighted in this review. This information may be useful in the selection process when designing future studies.

Keywords: Anterior cruacite ligament, ACL, Anatomy, Pathology, Biomechanic, Kinematic

Received: 17 Jun 2019; Accepted: 15 Aug 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Bascuñán, Biedrzycki, Banks, Lewis and Kim. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Stanley Kim, University of Florida, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Gainesville, United States,