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Mini Review ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Vet. Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00319

Revervoirs of porcine circoviruses: A mini review

 Shao-Lun Zhai1*, Shou-Sheng Lu2, Wen-Kang Wei3, Dian-Hong Lv3, Xiao-Hui Wen3, Qi Zhai3, Qin-Ling Chen3, Yan-Wei Sun2 and Yun Xi4
  • 1Institute of Animal Health, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
  • 2Guangdong Provincial Animal Disease Prevention and Control Center, China
  • 3Animal Disease Diagnostic Center, Institute of Animal Health, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
  • 4Department of Clinical Laboratory, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, China

Porcine circovirus (PCV) is the smallest known DNA virus in mammals. At present, PCVs were divided into three species, PCV1, PCV2 and PCV3. PCV1 and PCV2 was found in 1970s and 1990s, but PCV3 is a newly discovered virus in pigs in 2016. PCV1 does not cause disease in pigs. However, PCV3, similar to PCV2, is reported to be associated with several swine diseases including porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) and reproductive failure. PCVs are very common in domestic pig and wild boar. However, PCVs are occasionally isolated from non-porcine animals, including ruminants (such as cattle, goats, wild chamois, and roe deers), rodents (such as NMRI mice, BALB/c mice, Black C57 mice, ICR mice, Mus musculus, and Rattus rattus), canines (such as dogs, minks, foxes, and raccoon dogs), insects (such as flies, mosquitoes, and ticks) and shellfish. Moreover, PCVs were frequently reported in biological products, including human vaccines, animal vaccines, porcine-derived commercial pepsin product, and lots of cell lines. PCVs were also widely circulating in environmental samples, including water samples and air samples. Interestingly, PCV1 and/or PCV2 antibody or antigen could be detected in human sera, human stool samples and respiratory swab samples, revealing potential zoonotic of PCVs. To summarize, PCVs possess many types of reservoirs. In this review, we summarize the reservoirs of PCVs, which is helpful to understand the natural circulating status and possible cross-species transmission of PCVs.

Keywords: Porcine circovirus, PCV, PCV1, PCV2, PCV3, reservoirs

Received: 28 Jul 2019; Accepted: 05 Sep 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Zhai, Lu, Wei, Lv, Wen, Zhai, Chen, Sun and Xi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Shao-Lun Zhai, Institute of Animal Health, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, Guangdong Province, China, zhaishaolun@163.com