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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Vet. Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00324

Steroidogenic, metabolic, and immunological markers in dairy cows diagnosed with cystic ovarian disease at early and mid-late lactation

 Fabio S. Lima1*, Diego A. Costa2, Tonja R. Egan3,  Cassandra Skenandore3, Saige Sulzberger3, Dennis D. French1 and Felipe C. Cardoso3
  • 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States
  • 2Colombian Agricultural Research Corporation (CORPOICA), Colombia
  • 3Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States

Cystic ovarian follicles (COF) etiology remains a conundrum with steroidogenic, immunological, and metabolic dysfunctions linked to its development. Studies suggest that COF development may occur as a result of disruption of the insulin signaling pathway and the severity of negative energy balance in dairy cows, but mid to late lactation cows diagnosed with COF are unlikely to have issues with energy metabolism. Herein, we characterized the mRNA expression of steroidogenic (LHCGR, StAR, CYP11A1, 3β-HSD, CYP19A), immunological (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TLR-4, TNF), and metabolic markers (IGF-1, IRS1) in follicular fluid; and plasma and follicular fluid levels of E2, IL-1β, glucose, and NEFA in early and mid-late lactation COF cows. Lactating dairy cows were diagnosed as COF (n = 11, follicle > 20 mm persistent for seven days, absence of corpus luteum, and flaccid uterus) while 11 herdmates cycling with a dominant follicle were classified as Control. Cows diagnosed with COF were classified as early lactation (COF-E, n = 5), < 35 days in milk (DIM); or mid-late lactation (COF-M/L, n = 6), ≥ 118 DIM. Results revealed that mRNA expression StAR was greater (P < 0.01) in COF-E than COF-M/L and Control. The mRNA expression CYP19A1 was lower (P < 0.01) in COF-E and COF-M/L than Control cows. The mRNA expression IL-6 and IRS-1 tended to be greater and lower, respectively, in COF-M/L than Control. The mRNA expression IGF-1 was greater (P < 0.01) in COF-E and COF-M/L than in Control cows. The plasma and follicular fluid concentration of NEFA was greater (P < 0.05) in COF-E than COF-M/L and Control. Cows with COF-E had disturbances in steroidogenic and metabolic markers, while cows with COF-M/L had steroidogenic, immunological, and metabolic dysregulations suggesting that COF pathogenesis may vary between early and mid-late lactation dairy cows.

Keywords: Ovarian cyst, Cytokines, Steroidogenic enzymes, Metabolism, dairy cows

Received: 30 May 2019; Accepted: 10 Sep 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Lima, Costa, Egan, Skenandore, Sulzberger, French and Cardoso. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Fabio S. Lima, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Champaign, United States, flima@illinois.edu