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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Vet. Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00424


  • 1self-employed, Brazil
  • 2University of São Paulo, Brazil
  • 3Bioethicus Institute, Brazil

Goniometry is a low-cost, user-friendly and widely available technique used by different veterinary medicine professionals to estimate joint range of motion (ROM). Studies providing breed-specific reference ranges for goniometric measurements are scarce and there is a lack of information regarding joint angles in French Bulldogs. This prospective study set out to determine normal ROM for the carpus, elbow, shoulder, tarsus, stifle and hip joints in healthy, adult French Bulldogs using goniometry. We hypothesized ROM would be similar in this and other dog breeds. Twenty dogs met the inclusion criteria. Sample size was calculated using power analysis based on previous studies. Goniometric measurements were made by a single examiner. Limbs were measured in random order and three measurements made per joint. Dogs were not sedated. Joint angles measured in French Bulldogs in this study were similar to those reported in Labrador Retrievers (shoulder, carpal, and tarsal flexion), Rottweilers (shoulder, carpus and hip flexion) and Dachshunds (hip, stifle and tarsal flexion). Similar flexion angles and ROM were detected in right and left limb joints. Findings of this study suggest similar ROM in French Bulldogs and other dog breeds. Lack of radiographic assessment and the fact that goniometric measurements were made by a single examiner were the major limitations of this study.

Keywords: Goniometry, small animal, Physical Therapy, canine, Dogs

Received: 01 Jul 2019; Accepted: 08 Nov 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Lima, Formenton, Vasssalo, Rosseto, Joaquim and Fantoni. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: DVM. Maira R. Formenton, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil,