Institut National de recherche pour l’agriculture, l’alimentation et l’environnement (INRAE)
Specialty Chief Editor
Infectious Agents and Disease
Infectious Agents and Disease (IAD) aims to publish the outcome of high-quality original research that advances our understanding of infectious agents causing dysbiotic conditions, “classical”, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans as well as in animals and humans in the case of zoonotic infectious diseases. The editorial board of IAD will consider work performed with all agents capable of infecting humans, including bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, as causal agents of disease or as participants in mixed infections that lead to complex pathogenic changes in the structure and function of the infected host independent of the mode of transmission. The section welcomes reports on infectious agents transmitted directly (host to host) or indirectly (fomite-, food, soil-, water- or vector-borne, zoonotic facilitated by domesticated or wildlife animals) whether they are obligate or opportunistic causal agents of human disease including infections acquired in healthcare settings.
Over the past decades, genome-informed studies have revealed a much wider than expected diversity in the molecular underpinnings of pathogenicity in a given species. Therefore, IAD welcomes manuscripts that employ cellular, molecular genetic and evolutionary, biochemical as well as biophysical approaches to decipher aspects of the infectious and pathogenic capacity of causal agents whether they result from genetic drift or shift, gain or loss of function leading to new variants over evolutionary time or during infection and pathogenesis.
In line with the above-mentioned interest in the diversity of infectious agents, the section welcomes studies deciphering the molecular bases of the epidemic success of established, emerging or re-emerging pathogens. Since the onset of medical microbiology, most studies aiming to identify the molecular or cellular bases of an infectious disease, used a reference pathogenic organism, isolated mostly during the 1950s or 1960s, that may be not relevant anymore today. Therefore, the section welcomes particularly experimental pathogenicity studies that better represent the diversity of the pathogenic species including epidemic clones or variants.
In addition to studies aiming to gain knowledge in the diversity of infectious agents and their pathogenicity mechanism, the section welcomes applied research studies that may lead to the development of rapid and accurate identification tests (e.g., molecular, antigenic, serological tests; dedicated pathogen databases) and the development of adapted prevention/treatment measures or strategies.
The section welcomes submissions of all article types listed here.
Frontiers in Microbiology is member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.
PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), Scopus, Google Scholar, DOAJ, CrossRef, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)
All published articles receive a PMCID
Infectious Agents and Disease welcomes submissions of the following article types: Correction, Editorial, Hypothesis & Theory, Methods, Mini Review, Opinion, Original Research, Perspective, Review, Technology and Code.
All manuscripts must be submitted directly to the section Infectious Agents and Disease, where they are peer-reviewed by the Associate and Review Editors of the specialty section.
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Frontiers has a number of procedures in place to support and ensure the quality of the research articles that are published:
Only leading experts and established members of the research community are appointed to the Frontiers Editorial Boards. Chief Editors, Associate Editors and Review Editors are all listed with their names and affiliations on the Journal pages and are encouraged to publicly list their publication credentials.
Associate Editors oversee the peer-review and take the final acceptance decision on manuscripts. Editorial decision power is distributed in Frontiers, because we believe that many experts within a community should be able to shape the direction of science for the benefit of society.
Submitting authors can choose a preferred Associate Editor to handle their manuscript, because they can judge well who would be an appropriate expert in editing their manuscript. There is no guarantee for this preference of choice, Associate Editors can decline invitations any time, and the handling Associate Editor can also be over-ridden by the Chief Editor before she/he is invited to edit the article or at any other stage.
Associate Editors are mandated to only accept to edit a manuscript if they have no conflicts of interest (as stated here and in their review invitation and assignment emails).
Should it become clear that the Associate Editor has a conflict of interest or is unable to perform the peer-review timely and adequately, a new Associate Editor can be assigned to the manuscript by the Chief Editor, who has full control to intervene in the peer-review process at any time.
The Associate Editor initially checks that the article meets basic quality standards and has no obvious objective errors.
The Associate Editor can then personally choose and invite the most appropriate reviewers to handle the peer-review of the manuscript, including Review Editors from the board or external reviewers.
The Associate Editor is aided in this by the Frontiers Collaborative Review Forum software and interface, which suggests the most relevant Review Editors based on a match between their expertise and the topic of the manuscript. Associate Editors can however choose any reviewer they deem adequate.
After a certain time frame and if no reviewers have in the meantime been assigned to the manuscript, the Frontiers platform and algorithmic safety-net steps in and invites the most appropriate Review Editors based on constantly updated and improved algorithms that match reviewer expertise with the submitted manuscript.
Review Editors and reviewers are mandated to only accept to review a manuscript if they have no conflicts of interest (as stated here and in their review invitation and assignment emails).
Frontiers algorithms are constantly fine-tuned to better match Review Editors with manuscripts, and additional checks are being coded into the platform, for example regarding conflicts of interest.
Should it become clear that a particular reviewer has a conflict of interest or is unable to perform the peer-review timely and adequately, he or she shall be replaced with an alternative reviewer by the Associate Editor or the Chief Editor, who will be alerted and has full control to intervene into the peer-review at any time.
In the Independent Review Stage the assigned reviewers perform an in-depth review of the article independently of each other to safeguard complete freedom of opinion.
The reviewers are aided by an online standardized review questionnaire – adopted to article types – with the goal to facilitate rigorous evaluation according to objective criteria and the Frontiers Review Guidelines.
The Associate Editor assesses the reviews and activates the “Interactive Review” – informing the authors of the extent of revisions that are required to address the reviewers’ comments, and starting the Interactive Discussion Forum where authors and also the reviewers get full access to all review reports.
Manuscript and review quality at this stage are enhanced by allowing authors and reviewers to discuss directly with each other in real-time until they reach consensus and a final version of the manuscript is endorsed by the reviewers.
Reviewer identity is protected at this stage to safeguard complete freedom of opinion.
Reviewers can recommend rejection at this stage if their requests to correct objective errors are not being met by the authors or if they deem the article overall of insufficient quality.
Should a dispute arise, authors or reviewers can trigger an arbitration and will alert the Associate Editor, who can assign more reviewers and/or bring the dispute to the attention of the Chief Editor. The Associate Editor can also weigh in on the discussion and is asked to mediate the process to ensure a constructive revision stage.
The decision to accept an article needs to be unanimous amongst all reviewers and the handling Associate Editor.
The names of the Associate Editor and reviewers are disclosed on published articles to encourage in depth and rigorous reviews, acknowledge work well done on the article and to bring transparency and accountability into peer-review.
Associate Editors can recommend the rejection of an article to the Chief Editor, who needs to check that the authors’ rights have been upheld during the peer-review process, and who can then ultimately reject the article if it is of insufficient quality, has objective errors or if the authors were unreasonably unwilling to address the points raised during the review.
Chief Editors can at any stage of the peer-review step in to comment on the review process, change assigned editors, assign themselves as a reviewer and even as the handling editor for the manuscript, and therefore have full authority and all the mechanisms to act independently in their online editorial office to ensure quality.
Only leading researchers acting as Associate Editors, who are not part of Frontiers staff, can make acceptance decisions based on reviews performed by external experts acting as Review Editors or reviewers. None have a financial incentive to accept articles, i.e. they are not paid for their role to act as Associate or Review Editors, and any award scheme is not linked to acceptances of manuscripts.
Chief Editors receive an honorarium if their specialty section or field reaches certain submission levels. However, this honorarium is based on the total number of submitted articles during a calendar year, and not the number of accepted articles. Therefore they also have no financial incentive to accept manuscripts.
The Frontiers platform enables post-publication commenting and discussions on papers and hence the possibility to critically evaluate articles even after the peer-review process.
Frontiers has a community retraction protocol in place to retract papers where serious concerns have been raised and validated by the community that warrant retraction, including ethical concerns, honest errors or scientific misconduct.