Lymphocyte Functional Crosstalk and Regulation
- 1Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Germany
During the last decade, the dynamics of the cellular crosstalk have highlighted the significance of the host versus tumor interaction. This resulted in the development of novel immunotherapeutic strategies in order to modulate/inhibit the mechanisms leading to escape of tumor cells from immune surveillance. Different monoclonal antibodies directed against immune checkpoints, e.g. the T lymphocyte antigen 4 and the programmed cell death protein 1/ programmed cell death ligand 1 have been successfully implemented for the treatment of cancer. Despite their broad activity in many solid and hematologic tumor types, only 20-40% of patients demonstrated a durable treatment response. This might be due to an impaired T cell tumor interaction mediated by immune escape mechanisms of tumor and immune cells as well as alterations in the composition of the tumor microenvironment, peripheral blood and microbiome. These different factors dynamically regulate different steps of the cancer immune process thereby negatively interfering with the T cell –mediated anti-tumoral immune responses. Therefore, this review will summarize the current knowledge of the different players involved in inhibiting tumor immunogenicity and mounting resistance to checkpoint inhibitors with focus on the role of tumor T cell interaction. A better insight of this process might lead to the development of strategies to revert these inhibitory processes and represent the rational for the design of novel immunotherapies and combinations in order to improve their efficacy.
Keywords: T cell, Tumor growth, Tumor Microenvironment, Inflammation, Checkpoint inhibitor
Received: 15 Mar 2019;
Accepted: 12 Aug 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Seliger. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Barbara Seliger, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany, email@example.com