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SPECIALTY GRAND CHALLENGE article

Front. Trop. Dis, 04 May 2021
Sec. Emerging Tropical Diseases
Volume 2 - 2021 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fitd.2021.676905

The Constant Threat of Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Emerging Tropical Diseases: Living on the Edge

  • 1Grupo de Investigación Biomedicina, Faculty of Medicine, Fundacion Universitaria Autonoma de las Americas, Pereira, Colombia
  • 2Emerging Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Group, Instituto para la Investigación en Ciencias Biomédicas - Sci-Help, Pereira, Colombia
  • 3Coordinación Nacional de Investigación, Universidad Privada Franz Tamayo (UNIFRANZ), Cochabamba, Bolivia
  • 4Master Program on Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima, Peru
  • 5Department of Pathology, Molecular and Cell-Based Medicine, Laboratory of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States
  • 6Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas IDB/Incubadora Venezolana de la Ciencia, Barquisimeto, Venezuela
  • 7Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, United States
  • 8Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States
  • 9Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias Animales - GRICA, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bucaramanga, Colombia
  • 10Infettare, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Medellín, Colombia
  • 11Grupo de Estudio en Parasitologia Molecular (GEPAMOL) Group, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Quindío, Armenia, Colombia
  • 12Departamento de Investigación y Desarrollo (I+D), Laboratorios Lokímica, Paterna, Spain
  • 13Área de Parasitología, Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmaceútica y Parasitología, Universidad de Valencia, Burjasot, Spain
  • 14Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Carrera de Medicina, Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Ambato, Ecuador
  • 15Infectious Diseases and Infection Control Research Group, Hospital Universitario de Sincelejo, Sincelejo, Colombia
  • 16Programa Del Doctorado de Medicina Tropical, SUE Caribe, Universidad Del Atlántico, Barranquilla, Colombia
  • 17Semillero de Investigación en Zoonosis (SIZOO), Grupo de Investigación BIOECOS, Fundacion Universitaria Autonoma de las Americas, Pereira, Colombia
  • 18Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, United States
  • 19Centro de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Biotecnología-UR (CIMBIUR), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia
  • 20Research Group of Emerging Diseases, Ecoepidemiology and Biodiversity, Health Sciences Faculty, Universidad Internacional SEK, Quito, Ecuador
  • 21Sección Zoopatología Médica, Hospital de Infecciosas FJ Muñiz, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • 22Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizán, Huánuco, Peru
  • 23Istituto Zooprofilattico del Piemonte, Torino, Italy
  • 24Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Gastroenterology, Havana, Cuba
  • 25Infectious Diseases Group, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia
  • 26Faculdade de Medicina, UniFTC, Salvador, Brazil
  • 27Instituto de Investigaciones Biologicas del Tropico, Universidad de Cordoba, Monteria, Colombia
  • 28Investigador SNI Senacyt Panamá, Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudios de la Salud (ICGES), Panama, Panama


Emerging diseases have significantly impacted the last few decades (110). The emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Africa, Asia, and Latin America have reshaped the epidemiological landscape of these continents. The impact of these diseases and the establishment of local transmission in traditionally non-endemic areas, due to migration and travel, have been revealed over the last years. Diseases such as Chikungunya (1116), Zika (1724), Yellow Fever (2528), Dengue (2933), Oropouche, Madre de Dios virus, Iquitos virus (34, 35), Mayaro Fever (36, 37), Ebola (3842), Nipah virus, arenaviruses such as Lassa (43), Machupo (44, 45), Chapare (45, 46), Junin (47), zoonotic Malaria (48), Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (49), Plague (50), Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Acute Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease (5154), Visceral and Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (55, 56), Toxoplasmosis (5759), Tick-Borne Diseases (60, 61), Rift Valley Fever, Tuberculosis (62), Leprosy (6367), Avian Influenza (6870), Orthohantavirus (7175), and Toxocariasis (76, 77) have posed a significant impact to human health. Furthermore, zoonotic epidemics and pandemic coronaviruses, such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) (7882), and the ongoing SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 (83, 84) pandemic, have caused a profound economical and social disruption threatening to overwhelm public health systems globally (85) (Table 1). Most of these pathogens can even cocirculate and coinfect a significant proportion of inhabitants within the same territories (11, 8794). For example, in arboviral diseases, the occurrence of coinfections has been widely reported –such as Dengue with Chikungunya and/or with Zika virus– and affects diverse populations, including pregnant women and immunocompromised patients (9497). This may obscure clinical suspicion, as signs and symptoms for many of these pathogens may overlap. In endemic areas, this becomes a particularly pressing issue that must be taken into account in order to ensure accurate diagnosis and provide appropriate management. The ChikDenMaZika syndrome has been previously adopted as a mnemonic device to include Chikungunya, Dengue, Mayaro, and Zika in the broad differential of acute febrile illnesses due to arboviral agents (95). More recently, emerging coinfections, including bacterial and parasitic diseases, such as tuberculosis and Chagas disease, have also been reported (98).

TABLE 1
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Table 1 Lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic in Latin America.

Current times call for more comprehensive ecoepidemiological and bioecosocial approaches (20, 99). Scarce funding and the lack of research (39, 43, 61, 81) in tropical medicine are entirely unacceptable. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis (TB), and malaria combined receive approximately 70% of neglected diseases funding. As mentioned here, emerging tropical diseases, such as those mentioned here, are worldwide in scope, and many have significant regional implications. Therefore, a different funding paradigm that improves their situation is needed (100). The world is no longer a place with distant countries and shielded territories. Instead, ever increasing interconnectivity has turned it into a “small” global village, where the health status of underprivileged areas may undermine not only their lives and development but extend to the wealthiest. The Ebola crisis in 2014 highlighted how high-consequence emerging diseases could spill over to Europe and North America (38, 40). The ongoing 2020-2021 pandemic of COVID-19, which has reached as far as Antarctica, affecting almost all countries worldwide, is another clear example (8, 29, 84, 101112). As was expected, coinfections between tropical pathogens and COVID-19 are also now increasingly being reported, especially with dengue (30). Dengue affects over 100 countries worldwide and puts about 2.5-3.9 billion people at risk of infection (113, 114). Within the next century, nearly a billion people are at risk of exposure to virus transmission by both main Aedes spp., Ae. aegypti, and Ae. albopictus (also Chikungunya and Zika) in the worst-case scenario (115). The recent first detection of Ae. vittatus in the Dominican Republic and the Americas generated concern in the region, requiring enhanced surveillance to understand the range and public health risks of this potential invasive mosquito species, deserving more studies (116). Most of these emerging tropical diseases are vector-borne, zoonotically transmitted, or environmentally spread through direct contact, food or water ingestion, as well as a consequence of environmental alterations (including the effects of climate change) (117125), becoming significant sources of mortality and morbidity worldwide (2).

The impact of these diseases extends well beyond the acute constellation of symptoms, leading in a considerable proportion of patients to chronic sequelae and complications, which can be long lasting and severely incapacitating, as is the case with Chikungunya (15, 126132), Zika (17, 133135), Ebola, Chagas disease (52), and even for COVID-19 (136139).

Many tools have been deployed to counteract emerging infectious diseases. Amongst these are active surveillance (some supported by artificial intelligence) (140142), leading to the rapid identification of novel pathogens by genome sequencing and phylogenetic tracing studies (36, 105, 107, 143146) based on computing methods to predict possible interspecies barriers spillover between humans and animals (147). Coupling biotechnological approaches with social sciences—the holistic understanding of humans and their interactions in the disease ecosystems—is also a critical element needed when studying emerging infectious diseases (148, 149).

One of the most significant challenges when studying tropical infectious diseases relies on their complexity and heterogeneity, which usually requires a deep understanding not only of the disease itself but its overall context. In order to better approach these diseases one must keep a broader vision of designing proposed interventions, including multilevel ecoepidemiological studies ranging from molecular and omics to satellite epidemiology (use of data and images derived from geospatial technologies, e.g., satellites, for the study of the occurrence and distribution of health-related events in specified populations, and the application of this knowledge to control the health problems) of pathogens, vectors, hosts, abiotic variables, and other socio-environmental factors (125, 150, 151). While more research is required to fill in the numerous gaps in knowledge for many of these diseases, particular attention should be placed in designing strategies to develop methods to forecast these diseases not only in vulnerable and underserved populations from low-income countries but also in those poverty pockets located in high-income countries. A whole chapter to be considered in emerging tropical diseases is vaccines development. Innovative global partnership between public, private, philanthropic, and civil society organisations, such as the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), launched in 2017, are important to develop vaccines to stop future epidemics. To accelerate the development of vaccines against emerging infectious diseases and enable equitable access to these vaccines for people during outbreaks is crucial. Nevertheless, more funding to understand biology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of emerging tropical diseases are urgently needed and expected (152154).

Tropical Medicine is no more a clinical specialty of “exotic diseases,” as it was conceived at its beginnings, and is no more about “diseases for those entering the jungle.” One dramatic change is the urban installation of diseases that before were observed only after sylvatic or primary forest exposure. The increase of urban outbreaks of Chagas disease in South America is now a horrific reality in Brazil (155157), Venezuela (158), and Colombia (159, 160), and it is also a new reality for visceral leishmaniasis (161164). The integrated work of public health experts, veterinarians, entomologists, and parasitologists is an urgent need to face these new challenges and transformations of tropical diseases. Tropical diseases also include non-infectious diseases, such as animal bites and stings (e.g. myiasis and tungiasis) (165, 166). Snake bites, scorpion stings, and spider bites, account for a significant amount of the morbidity and mortality in tropical countries in these changing scenarios, including ecotourism, rural migration, and other related factors (167170).

There is no doubt that “many things are wrong in the world today”, as the legendary American rock n’roll band Aerosmith has been singing since the 90s. We are “living on the edge”, the edge of neglect and of a surge of many emerging infectious diseases with no hope for resolution in the foreseeable future. Furthermore, “it sure ain’t no surprise” that poverty, inequality, climate change, deforestation, migration, urbanization, wildlife trade, among many other factors, have all contributed to the emergence of novel tropical diseases and the resurgence of other endemic diseases (171). There is no spare place for the arrival of emerging pathogens, and over time pathogens tend to adapt to new environments leading to unforeseen consequences. The next epidemic, the next pandemic, is just around the corner (68). In response to this latent threat, we need to gather real-time information and build collaborative networks aimed to enhance surveillance activities in order to develop high-priority medical countermeasures to prevent and control emerging tropical diseases. Research in Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Emerging Tropical Diseases remains the most critical aspect and the foundation to determine the drivers of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.

With that vision, our new Section Emerging Tropical Diseases in the journal Frontiers in Tropical Diseases offers to contribute to the scientific advancement and fill in the many knowledge gaps based on a multi and transdisciplinary approach. Our team of Associate Editors is comprised of a diverse group of experts from different countries, diverse backgrounds, and varied interrelated expertises in a wide range of conditions within the tropical diseases spectrum of diseases, following the One Health approach vision (8, 172).

Grand challenges exist in the fight against the threat of emerging tropical diseases. In the laboratory, our daily work, in the hospitals, in the field, in the community, and in many other places, our shared goal is to understand the drivers of emergence and address their root-causes. We are working collaboratively in social networks to reduce the impact of emerging tropical diseases. Let’s work on this together! We value your work and welcome your submissions to this new section of Frontiers in Tropical Diseases.

Author Contributions

All authors contributed to manuscript conception and design, literature review, manuscript preparation, and critical review. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

Conflict of Interest

RB-M was employed by Laboratorios Lokímica, Spain.

The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Acknowledgments

AR-M is the Specialty Chief Editor in Emerging Tropical Diseases of Frontiers in Tropical Diseases. The remaining authors of this article are their Associate Editors. This is a collaborative article of the Network NHEPACHA.

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48. Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Malaria: An Eradicable Threat? J Infect Dev Ctries (2008) 2(1):1–2. doi: 10.3855/jidc.316

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49. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Ramirez-Jaramillo V, Patino-Barbosa AM, Bedoya-Arias HA, Henao-SanMartin V, Murillo-Garcia DR, et al. Severe Fever With Thrombocytopenia Syndrome - A Bibliometric Analysis of an Emerging Priority Disease. Travel Med Infect Dis (2018) 23:97–8. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2018.04.010

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50. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Escalera-Antezana JP, Alvarado-Arnez LE. Is Plague Globally Reemerging? Infectio (2019) 23:7–9. doi: 10.22354/in.v23i1.748

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54. Villamil-Gomez WE, Echeverria LE, Ayala MS, Munoz L, Mejia L, Eyes-Escalante M, et al. Orally Transmitted Acute Chagas Disease in Domestic Travelers in Colombia. J Infect Public Health (2017) 10(2):244–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2016.05.002

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55. Villamil-Gomez WE, Calderon-Gomezcaseres A, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Patient With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus From Colombia, Latin America. Infez Med (2019) 27(1):106–8.

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56. Arteaga-Livias K, Santos-Huerta M, Damaso-Mata B, Panduro-Correa V, Gonzales-Zamora JA, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Pediatric Patient From Peru. J Trop Pediatr (2020). doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmaa051

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57. Hernandez-de-Los-Rios A, Murillo-Leon M, Mantilla-Muriel LE, Arenas AF, Vargas-Montes M, Cardona N, et al. Influence of Two Major Toxoplasma Gondii Virulence Factors (ROP16 and ROP18) on the Immune Response of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells to Human Toxoplasmosis Infection. Front Cell Infect Microbiol (2019) 9:413. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2019.00413

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60. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Idarraga-Bedoya SE, Garcia-Bustos JJ, Cardona-Ospina JA, Faccini-Martinez AA. Epidemiology of Zoonotic Tick-Borne Diseases in Latin America: Are We Just Seeing the Tip of the Iceberg? F1000Res (2018) 7:1988. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.17649.1

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61. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Escalera-Antezana JP, Alvarado-Arnez LE. Research on Babesia: A Bibliometric Assessment of a Neglected Tick-Borne Parasite. F1000Res (2018) 7:1987. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.17581.1

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64. Franco-Paredes C, Marcos LA, Henao-Martinez AF, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Villamil-Gomez WE, Gotuzzo E, et al. Cutaneous Mycobacterial Infections. Clin Microbiol Rev (2018) 32(1):e00069–18. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00069-18

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66. de Toledo-Pinto TG, Ferreira AB, Ribeiro-Alves M, Rodrigues LS, Batista-Silva LR, Silva BJ, et al. Sting-Dependent 2’-5’ Oligoadenylate Synthetase-Like Production is Required for Intracellular Mycobacterium Leprae Survival. J Infect Dis (2016) 214(2):311–20. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw144

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67. Franco-Paredes C, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Unsolved Matters in Leprosy: A Descriptive Review and Call for Further Research. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob (2016) 15(1):33. doi: 10.1186/s12941-016-0149-x

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68. Bonilla-Aldana DK, Aguirre-Florez M, Villamizar-Pena R, Gutierrez-Ocampo E, Henao-Martinez JF, Cvetkovic-Vega A, et al. After SARS-CoV-2, Will H5N6 and Other Influenza Viruses Follow the Pandemic Path? Infez Med (2020) 28(4):475–85.

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69. Philippon DAM, Wu P, Cowling BJ, Lau EHY. Avian Influenza Human Infections At the Human-Animal Interface. J Infect Dis (2020) 222(4):528–37. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa105

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71. Chandy S, Mathai D. Globally Emerging Hantaviruses: An Overview. Indian J Med Microbiol (2017) 35(2):165–75. doi: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_429

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73. Enria DA, Pinheiro F. Rodent-Borne Emerging Viral Zoonosis: Hemorrhagic Fevers and Hantavirus Infections in South America. Infect Dis Clinics North America (2000) 14(1):167–84. doi: 10.1016/S0891-5520(05)70223-3

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74. Chand S, Thapa S, Kon S, Johnson SC, Poeschla EM, Franco-Paredes C, et al. Hantavirus Infection With Renal Failure and Proteinuria, Colorado, USA, 2019. Emerg Infect Dis (2020) 26(2):383–5. doi: 10.3201/eid2602.191349

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75. Escalera-Antezana JP, Torrez-Fernandez R, Montalvan-Plata D, Montenegro-Narvaez CM, Aviles-Sarmiento JL, Alvarado-Arnez LE, et al. Orthohantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz and Tarija, Bolivia, 2018. Int J Infect Dis (2020) 90:145–50. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.10.021

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76. Gomez-Marin JE, Londono AL, Cabeza-Acevedo N, Torres E, Navarrete-Moncada L, Bueno O, et al. Ocular Toxocariasis in Parasitology Consultation in Quindio, Colombia: Description of Cases and Contact Studies. J Trop Pediatr (2021) 67(1):fmaa096. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmaa096

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77. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Gallego-Valencia V, Gómez-DeLaRosa SH, López-Echeverri C, Peña-Verjan NM, et al. Toxocariasis in Colombia: More Than Neglected. Curr Trop Med Rep (2020) 7(1):17–24. doi: 10.1007/s40475-020-00199-x

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78. Bonilla-Aldana DK, Cardona-Trujillo MC, Garcia-Barco A, Holguin-Rivera Y, Cortes-Bonilla I, Bedoya-Arias HA, et al. Mers-CoV and SARS-CoV Infections in Animals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prevalence Studies. Infez Med (2020) 28(suppl 1):71–83. doi: 10.20944/preprints202003.0103.v1

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79. Dhama K, Patel SK, Sharun K, Pathak M, Tiwari R, Yatoo MI, et al. Sars-CoV-2 Jumping the Species Barrier: Zoonotic Lessons From SARS, MERS and Recent Advances to Combat This Pandemic Virus. Travel Med Infect Dis (2020) 37:101830. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101830

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80. Rabaan AA, Al-Ahmed SH, Haque S, Sah R, Tiwari R, Malik YS, et al. SARS-Cov-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-COV: A Comparative Overview. Infez Med (2020) 28(2):174–84.

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81. Bonilla-Aldana DK, Quintero-Rada K, Montoya-Posada JP, Ramirez-Ocampo S, Paniz-Mondolfi A, Rabaan AA, et al. SARS-Cov, MERS-CoV and Now the 2019-Novel CoV: Have We Investigated Enough About Coronaviruses? - A Bibliometric Analysis Travel Med Infect Dis (2020) 33:101566. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101566

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82. Al-Tawfiq JA, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Super-Spreading Events and Contribution to Transmission of MERS, SARS, and SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19). J Hosp Infect (2020) 105(2):111–2. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.04.002

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83. Sanchez-Duque JA, Arce-Villalobos LR, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. [Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Latin America: Role of Primary Care in Preparedness and Response]. Aten Primaria (2020) 52(6):369–72. doi: 10.1016/j.aprim.2020.04.001

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85. Hashem NM, Gonzalez-Bulnes A, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Animal Welfare and Livestock Supply Chain Sustainability Under the COVID-19 Outbreak: An Overview. Front Vet Sci (2020) 7:582528. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.582528

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86. Herrera-Anazco P, Uyen-Cateriano A, Mezones-Holguin E, Taype-Rondan A, Mayta-Tristan P, Malaga G, et al. Some Lessons That Peru did Not Learn Before the Second Wave of COVID-19. Int J Health Plann Manage (2021). doi: 10.1002/hpm.3135

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87. Carrillo-Hernandez MY, Ruiz-Saenz J, Villamizar LJ, Gomez-Rangel SY, Martinez-Gutierrez M. Co-Circulation and Simultaneous Co-Infection of Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses in Patients With Febrile Syndrome At the Colombian-Venezuelan Border. BMC Infect Dis (2018) 18(1):61. doi: 10.1186/s12879-018-2976-1

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88. Haqqi A, Awan UA, Ali M, Saqib MAN, Ahmed H, Afzal MS. Covid-19 and Dengue Virus Coepidemics in Pakistan: A Dangerous Combination for an Overburdened Healthcare System. J Med Virol (2021) 93(1):80–2. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26144

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89. Sanchez-Duque JA, Orozco-Hernandez JP, Marin-Medina DS, Cvetkovic-Vega A, Aveiro-Robalo TR, Mondragon-Cardona A, et al. Are We Now Observing an Increasing Number of Coinfections Between SARS-CoV-2 and Other Respiratory Pathogens? J Med Virol (2020) 92(11):2398–400. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26089

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90. Alberca RW, Yendo TM, Leuzzi Ramos YA, Fernandes IG, Oliveira LM, Teixeira FME, et al. Case Report: Covid-19 and Chagas Disease in Two Coinfected Patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg (2020) 103(6):2353–6. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1185

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92. Rodriguez JA, Rubio-Gomez H, Roa AA, Miller N, Eckardt PA. Co-Infection With SARS-COV-2 and Parainfluenza in a Young Adult Patient With Pneumonia: Case Report. IDCases (2020) 20:e00762. doi: 10.1016/j.idcr.2020.e00762

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93. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Suarez JA, Risquez A, Delgado-Noguera L, Paniz-Mondolfi A. The Current Syndemic in Venezuela: Measles, Malaria and More Co-Infections Coupled With a Breakdown of Social and Healthcare Infrastructure. Quo Vadis? Travel Med Infect Dis (2019) 27:5–8. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2018.10.010

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94. Villamil-Gomez WE, Gonzalez-Camargo O, Rodriguez-Ayubi J, Zapata-Serpa D, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika Co-Infection in a Patient From Colombia. J Infect Public Health (2016) 9(5):684–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2015.12.002

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95. Paniz-Mondolfi AE, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Blohm G, Marquez M, Villamil-Gomez WE. Chikdenmazika Syndrome: The Challenge of Diagnosing Arboviral Infections in the Midst of Concurrent Epidemics. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob (2016) 15(1):42. doi: 10.1186/s12941-016-0157-x

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96. Villamil-Gomez WE, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Uribe-Garcia AM, Gonzalez-Arismendy E, Castellanos JE, Calvo EP, et al. Zika, Dengue, and Chikungunya Co-Infection in a Pregnant Woman From Colombia. Int J Infect Dis (2016) 51:135–8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2016.07.017

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97. Villamil-Gomez WE, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Reply: Dengue RT-PCR-Positive, Chikungunya IgM-positive and Zika Rt-PCR-positive Co-Infection in a Patient From Colombia. J Infect Public Health (2017) 10(1):133–4. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2016.02.003

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98. Villamil-Gomez WE, Silvera LA, Henao-Palencia S, Contreras-Arrieta J, Caceres JF, Ortiz-Martinez Y, et al. Coinfection of Trypanosoma Cruzi and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in a Patient From Colombia. J Infect Public Health (2016) 9(1):113–5. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2015.09.004

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99. Rifakis PM, Benitez JA, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Dickson SM, De-La-Paz-Pineda J. Ecoepidemiological and Social Factors Related to Rabies Incidence in Venezuela During 2002-2004. Int J BioMed Sci (2006) 2(1):1–6.

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100. Macleod CK, Bright P, Steer AC, Kim J, Mabey D, Parks T. Neglecting the Neglected: The Objective Evidence of Underfunding in Rheumatic Heart Disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg (2019) 113(5):287–90. doi: 10.1093/trstmh/trz014

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101. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Sánchez-Duque JA, Hernández-Botero S, Pérez-Díaz CE, Villamil-Gómez WE, Méndez CA, et al. Preparación Y Control De La Enfermedad Por Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) En América Latina. Acta Med Peruana (2020) 37(1):3–7. doi: 10.35663/amp.2020.371.909

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102. Pathak M, Patel SK, Jigyasa R, Tiwari R, Dhama K, Sah R, et al. Global Threat of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 and the Need for More and Better Diagnostic Tools. Arch Med Res (2020) 51(5):450–2. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2020.04.003

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103. Mousavi SH, Zahid SU, Wardak K, Azimi KA, Reza Hosseini SM, Wafaee M, et al. Mapping the Changes on Incidence, Case Fatality Rates and Recovery Proportion of COVID-19 in Afghanistan Using Geographical Information Systems. Arch Med Res (2020) 51(6):600–2. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2020.06.010

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104. Cimerman S, Chebabo A, Cunha CAD, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Deep Impact of COVID-19 in the Healthcare of Latin America: The Case of Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis (2020) 24(2):93–5. doi: 10.1016/j.bjid.2020.04.005

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105. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Rodriguez-Morales AG, Mendez CA, Hernandez-Botero S. Tracing New Clinical Manifestations in Patients With COVID-19 in Chile and Its Potential Relationship With the SARS-CoV-2 Divergence. Curr Trop Med Rep (2020) 7:75–8. doi: 10.1007/s40475-020-00205-2

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106. Bonilla-Aldana DK, Villamil-Gómez WE, Rabaan AA, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Una Nueva Zoonosis Viral De Preocupación Global: COVID-19, Enfermedad Por Coronavirus 2019. Iatreia (2020) 33(2):107–10. doi: 10.17533/udea.iatreia.85

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107. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Balbin-Ramon GJ, Rabaan AA, Sah R, Dhama K, Paniz-Mondolfi A, et al. Genomic Epidemiology and its Importance in the Study of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Infez Med (2020) 28(2):139–42.

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108. Ahmad T, Khan M, Haroon, Musa TH, Nasir S, Hui J, et al. Covid-19: Zoonotic Aspects. Travel Med Infect Dis (2020) 36:101607. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101607

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109. Escalera-Antezana JP, Lizon-Ferrufino NF, Maldonado-Alanoca A, Alarcon-De-la-Vega G, Alvarado-Arnez LE, Balderrama-Saavedra MA, et al. Clinical Features of the First Cases and a Cluster of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) in Bolivia Imported From Italy and Spain. Travel Med Infect Dis (2020) 35:101653. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101653

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110. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Cardona-Ospina JA, Gutierrez-Ocampo E, Villamizar-Pena R, Holguin-Rivera Y, Escalera-Antezana JP, et al. Clinical, Laboratory and Imaging Features of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis (2020) 34:101623. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101623

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111. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Gallego V, Escalera-Antezana JP, Mendez CA, Zambrano LI, Franco-Paredes C, et al. Covid-19 in Latin America: The Implications of the First Confirmed Case in Brazil. Travel Med Infect Dis (2020) 35:101613. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101613

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112. Ahmad T, Haroon, Dhama K, Sharun K, FM K, Ahmed I, et al. Biosafety and Biosecurity Approaches to Restrain/Contain and Counter SARS-CoV-2/ Covid-19 Pandemic: A Rapid-Review. Turk J Biol (2020) 44(Special issue 1):132–45. doi: 10.3906/biy-2005-63

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113. Nuraini N, Fauzi IS, Fakhruddin M, Sopaheluwakan A, Soewono E. Climate-Based Dengue Model in Semarang, Indonesia: Predictions and Descriptive Analysis. Infect Dis Model (2021) 6:598–611. doi: 10.1016/j.idm.2021.03.005

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114. Hussen MO, Sayed ASM, Abushahba MFN. Sero-Epidemiological Study on Dengue Fever Virus in Humans and Camels At Upper Egypt. Vet World (2020) 13(12):2618–24. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.2618-2624

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116. Alarcon-Elbal PM, Rodriguez-Sosa MA, Newman BC, Sutton WB. The First Record of Aedes Vittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Dominican Republic: Public Health Implications of a Potential Invasive Mosquito Species in the Americas. J Med Entomol (2020) 57(6):2016–21. doi: 10.1093/jme/tjaa128

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117. Chowdhury FR, Ibrahim QSU, Bari MS, Alam MMJ, Dunachie SJ, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, et al. The Association Between Temperature, Rainfall and Humidity With Common Climate-Sensitive Infectious Diseases in Bangladesh. PloS One (2018) 13(6):e0199579. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199579

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118. Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Climate Change, Climate Variability and Brucellosis. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discovery (2013) 8(1):4–12. doi: 10.2174/1574891X11308010003

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119. Rodriguez-Morales AJ. [Climate Change, Rainfall, Society and Disasters in Latin America: Relations and Needs]. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica (2011) 28(1):165–6. doi: 10.1590/S1726-46342011000100032

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120. Chowdhury FR, Ibrahim QSU, Bari MS, Alam MMJ, Dunachie SJ, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, et al. Correction: The Association Between Temperature, Rainfall and Humidity With Common Climate-Sensitive Infectious Diseases in Bangladesh. PloS One (2020) 15(4):e0232285. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0232285

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121. Mattar S, Morales V, Cassab A, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Effect of Climate Variables on Dengue Incidence in a Tropical Caribbean Municipality of Colombia, Cerete, 2003-2008. Int J Infect Dis (2013) 17(5):e358–9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2012.11.021

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122. Cardenas R, Sandoval CM, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Franco-Paredes C. Impact of Climate Variability in the Occurrence of Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg (2006) 75(2):273–7. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.273

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123. Zambrano LI, Sevilla C, Reyes-Garcia SZ, Sierra M, Kafati R, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, et al. Potential Impacts of Climate Variability on Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Honduras, 2010. Trop BioMed (2012) 29(4):499–507.

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124. Herrera-Martinez AD, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. Potential Influence of Climate Variability on Dengue Incidence Registered in a Western Pediatric Hospital of Venezuela. Trop BioMed (2010) 27(2):280–6.

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125. Cardenas R, Sandoval CM, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Vivas P. Zoonoses and Climate Variability. Ann N Y Acad Sci (2008) 1149:326–30. doi: 10.1196/annals.1428.094

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126. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Simon F. Chronic Chikungunya, Still to be Fully Understood. Int J Infect Dis (2019) 86:133–4. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.07.024

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127. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Cardona-Ospina JA, Villamil-Gomez W, Paniz-Mondolfi AE. How Many Patients With Post-Chikungunya Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatism can We Expect in the New Endemic Areas of Latin America? Rheumatol Int (2015) 35(12):2091–4. doi: 10.1007/s00296-015-3302-5

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128. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Restrepo-Posada VM, Acevedo-Escalante N, Rodriguez-Munoz ED, Valencia-Marin M, Castrillon-Spitia JD, et al. Impaired Quality of Life After Chikungunya Virus Infection: A 12-Month Follow-Up Study of its Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatism in La Virginia, Risaralda, Colombia. Rheumatol Int (2017) 37(10):1757–8. doi: 10.1007/s00296-017-3795-1

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Keywords: vector-borne diseases, zoonotic diseases, emerging, SARS-CoV-2/COVID-2, tropical diseases, challenges

Citation: Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Paniz-Mondolfi AE, Faccini-Martínez ÁA, Henao-Martínez AF, Ruiz-Saenz J, Martinez-Gutierrez M, Alvarado-Arnez LE, Gomez-Marin JE, Bueno-Marí R, Carrero Y, Villamil-Gomez WE, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Haque U, Ramirez JD, Navarro J-C, Lloveras S, Arteaga-Livias K, Casalone C, Maguiña JL, Escobedo AA, Hidalgo M, Bandeira AC, Mattar S, Cardona-Ospina JA and Suárez JA (2021) The Constant Threat of Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Emerging Tropical Diseases: Living on the Edge. Front. Trop. Dis 2:676905. doi: 10.3389/fitd.2021.676905

Received: 06 March 2021; Accepted: 06 April 2021;
Published: 04 May 2021.

Edited and reviewed by: Jerome Kim, International Vaccine Institute, South Korea

Copyright © 2021 Rodriguez-Morales, Paniz-Mondolfi, Faccini-Martínez, Henao-Martínez, Ruiz-Saenz, Martinez-Gutierrez, Alvarado-Arnez, Gomez-Marin, Bueno-Marí, Carrero, Villamil-Gomez, Bonilla-Aldana, Haque, Ramirez, Navarro, Lloveras, Arteaga-Livias, Casalone, Maguiña, Escobedo, Hidalgo, Bandeira, Mattar, Cardona-Ospina and Suárez. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales, alfonso.rodriguez@uam.edu.co

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