Advances in Diagnostic Approaches for Viral Aetiologies of Diarrhoea: From the Lab to the Field
- 1Division of Biological Standardization, Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, India
- 2ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases (ICAR-NIHSAD), India
- 3Mohamed V Military Training Hospital, Morocco
- 4Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, India
- 5U.P. Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Veterinary University, India
- 6Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, India
- 7Division of Pathology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), India
- 8Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Saint Kitts and Nevis
- 9King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia
- 10Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Taif University, Saudi Arabia
- 11Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary
- 12Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Ohio State University, United States
- 13Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), India
The applications of correct diagnostic approaches play a decisive role in timely containment of infectious diseases spread and mitigation of public health risks. Nevertheless, there is a need to update the diagnostics regularly to capture the new, emergent, and highly divergent viruses. Acute gastroenteritis of viral origin has been identified as a significant cause of mortality across the globe, with the more serious consequences seen at the extremes of age groups (young and elderly) and immune-compromised individuals. Therefore, significant advancements and efforts have been put in the development of enteric virus diagnostics to meet the WHO ASSURED criteria as a benchmark over the years. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent (ELISA) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) are the basic assays that provided the platform for the development of several efficient diagnostics such as real-time RT-PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), polymerase spiral reaction (PSR), biosensors, microarrays, and next-generation sequencing. Herein, we describe and discuss the applications of these advanced technologies in context to enteric virus detection by delineating their features, advantages, and limitations.
Keywords: Enteric virus, Infection, Diagnosis,, cell culture, serological techniques., Molecular tests screening
Received: 03 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 08 Aug 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Malik, Verma, Kumar, Touil, Karthik, Tiwari, Bora, Dhama, Ghosh, Hemida, Abdel-Moneim, Bányai, Vlasova and Singh. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Prof. Yashpal S. Malik, Division of Biological Standardization, Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, India, firstname.lastname@example.org
Mx. Kuldeep Dhama, Division of Pathology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar, 243122, India, email@example.com