Neuroendocrine regulation of tumor-associated immune cells
- 1Ponce Research Institute, Ponce Health Sciences University, Puerto Rico
- 2Ponce Health Sciences University, Puerto Rico
Mounting preclinical and clinical evidence continues to support a role for the neuroendocrine system in the modulation of tumor biology and progression. Several studies have shown data supporting a link between chronic stress and cancer progression. Dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in promoting angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation and survival, alteration of the immune response and exacerbating inflammatory networks in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we review how SNS and HPA dysregulation contributes to disturbances in immune cell populations, modifies cancer biology, and impacts immunotherapy response. We also highlight several interventions aimed at circumventing the adverse effects stress has on cancer patients.
Keywords: cancer biology, stress hormone, Inflammation, immune cells, Hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, Sympathetic Nervous System
Received: 01 Jul 2019;
Accepted: 30 Sep 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Armaiz-Pena, Colon-Echevarria and Lamboy-Caraballo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Mx. Guillermo N. Armaiz-Pena, Ponce Research Institute, Ponce Health Sciences University, Ponce, Puerto Rico, firstname.lastname@example.org