Susceptibility of multiple primary cancers in patients with head and neck cancer: nature or nurture?
- 1Sichuan University, China
- 2Shandong University, China
Multiple primary cancers (MPCs) are major obstacles to long-term survival in head and neck cancer (HNSCC), however, the molecular mechanism underlying multiple carcinogenesis remains unclear. “Field cancerization” is a classical theory to elaborate the malignant progression of MPCs. Apart from environmental and immune factors, genetic factors may have great potential as molecular markers for MPCs risk prediction. This review focuses on inherited and acquired gene mutations in MPCs, including germ-line mutation, single-nucleotide polymorphism, chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability and DNA methylation. And definition and prognosis of MPCs have also been discussed. These may pave the way for the early detection, prevention and effective treatment of MPCs in HNSCC.
Keywords: head and neck cancer, Multiple primary cancer, Field cancerization, Genetic factor, biomarker, cancer-associated fibroblasts
Received: 05 Sep 2019;
Accepted: 04 Nov 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Zhang, Huang, Tang, Tang and Liang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Mx. Yaling Tang, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, email@example.com
Mx. Xin-hua Liang, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, firstname.lastname@example.org