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Front. Oncol. | doi: 10.3389/fonc.2019.01292

The Role of Long Noncoding RNAs in the Immunotherapy Resistance

  • 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China
  • 2Department of Dermatology and Venereology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China

T-cell-based immunotherapies, particularly immune checkpoint inhibitors, are promising treatments for various cancers. However, a large subset of patients develop primary or secondary resistance upon treatment. Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, immune escape via alterations in both cancer and tumor microenvironment has been identified as critical causes of immune resistance. Moreover, some long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), named as immune-related lncRNAs, have been recognized as regulators of immune cell-specific gene expression mediate immune processes. These immune-related lncRNAs may play a vital role in immunotherapy resistance. Herein, we summarize current immune-related lncRNAs and their underlying roles in immune resistance to provide strategies for future research and therapeutic alternatives to overcome immunotherapy resistance.


Key words: Long noncoding RNAs; immune checkpoint inhibitor; immune response; immune evasion; immunotherapy resistance

Keywords: Long Noncoding RNAs, Immune checkpoint inhibitor, immune response, Immune invasion, Immunotherapy resistance

Received: 17 Jul 2019; Accepted: 07 Nov 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Zhou, Zhu, Xie and Ma. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Xuelei Ma, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China, drmaxuelei@gmail.com