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IL-1 inhibition

Correction ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Pharmacol. | doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00148

Correction to the review article “Anakinra Therapy for Non-cancer Inflammatory Diseases”

  • 1Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Italy
  • 2Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Netherlands
  • 3University of Colorado Denver, United States

Correction to the review article “Anakinra Therapy for Non-cancer Inflammatory Diseases”

Giulio Cavalli 1,2 and Charles A. Dinarello 2,3

1 Unit of Immunology, Rheumatology, Allergy and Rare Diseases, San Raffaele Hospital and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
2 Department of Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, HB 6500, The Netherlands
3 Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, 80045, USA

Supported by AIRC under MFAG 2018 - ID. 22136 project – P.I. Giulio Cavalli, NIH Grants AI-15614, CA-04-6934, and the Interleukin Foundation
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.




In our recent review “Anakinra Therapy for Non-cancer Inflammatory Diseases” (1), we failed to provide citations for publications relevant to the discovery of IL 1Ra. As stated in our review (1), in 1981 we described a circulating suppressor factor from humans during experimental endotoxemia as assayed for specific inhibition of IL 1 activity in vitro (2). We believe this circulating suppressor factor was the first description of IL 1Ra, as we confirmed our findings in a report published in Lancet in 1991 using a specific radioimmunoassay for IL 1Ra (3). However, in 1984, there was documentation from the group of Jean-Michel Dayer describing a specific inhibitor of IL 1 activity isolated from the urine of patients with monoblastic leukemia: “Identification of Interleukin 1-Like Activity and Inhibitor(s) in Urine from a Patient with Acute Monoblastic Leukemia” (4). This was an essential contribution to the history of the discovery of the antagonist. In 1985, there was another report from the Dayer laboratory “Collagenase- and PGE2-Stimulating Activity (Interleukin-1-Like) and Inhibitor in Urine from a Patient with Monocytic Leukemia, as published in Progress in Leukocyte Biology, vol. 2 (New York, NY: Alan R. Liss, 1985 p. 429). These reports were followed by the publication in the Journal of Clinical Investigation (5). As stated in our Review, “the IL-1 inhibitor” isolated from the urine was shown to prevent binding of IL-1 to cells (6), thus providing for the first time evidence for its mechanism of action. Because of the widespread and beneficial use of anakinra (the recombinant form of the nature IL 1Ra) to treat human diseases, the contributions of Jean-Michel Dayer as well as those of William Arend are paramount.

Giulio Cavalli, MD
Charles A. Dinarello, MD

Keywords: IL-1, IL-1alfa, IL-1b, Rheumatologic, Inflammation

Received: 11 Jan 2019; Accepted: 08 Feb 2019.

Edited by:

Paolo Sfriso, University of Padova, Italy

Copyright: © 2019 Cavalli and Dinarello. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Charles A. Dinarello, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, 80217-3364, Colorado, United States, cdinare333@aol.com