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Correction ARTICLE

Front. Pharmacol., 08 March 2019 |

Corrigendum: Anakinra Therapy for Non-cancer Inflammatory Diseases

  • 1Unit of Immunology, Rheumatology, Allergy and Rare Diseases, San Raffaele Hospital, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
  • 2Department of Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands
  • 3Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, United States

A Corrigendum on
Anakinra Therapy for Non-cancer Inflammatory Diseases

by Cavalli, G., and Dinarello, C. A. (2018). Front. Pharmacol. 9:1157. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01157

In the original article “Anakinra Therapy for Non-cancer Inflammatory Diseases”, we failed to provide citations for publications relevant to the discovery of IL-1Ra. The citations have now been inserted in the Introduction, Historical Background of IL-1 and IL-1Ra and should read:

“As stated in our review (Cavalli and Dinarello, 2018), in 1981 we described a circulating suppressor factor from humans during experimental endotoxemia as assayed for specific inhibition of IL-1 activity in vitro (Dinarello et al., 1981). We believe this circulating suppressor factor was the first description of IL-1Ra, and we confirmed our findings in a report published in Lancet in 1991 using a specific radioimmunoassay for IL-1Ra (Granowitz et al., 1991). However, in 1984, there was documentation from the group of Jean-Michel Dayer describing a specific inhibitor of IL-1 activity isolated from the urine of patients with monoblastic leukemia (Balavoine et al., 1984). This was an essential contribution to the history of the discovery of the antagonist. In 1985, there was another report from the Dayer laboratory “Collagenase- and PGE2-Stimulating Activity (Interleukin-1-Like) and Inhibitor in Urine from a Patient with Monocytic Leukemia”, as published in Progress in Leukocyte Biology, vol. 2 (New York, NY: Alan R. Liss, 1985 p. 429). These reports were followed by another publication in the Journal of Clinical Investigation (Balavoine et al., 1986). As stated in our Review, “the IL-1 inhibitor” isolated from the urine was shown to prevent binding of IL-1 to cells (Seckinger et al., 1987), thus providing for the first time evidence for its mechanism of action. Because of the widespread and beneficial use of anakinra (the recombinant form of the nature IL-1Ra) to treat human diseases, the contributions of Jean-Michel Dayer as well as those of William Arend are paramount.”

The authors apologize for this error and state that this does not change the scientific conclusions of the article in any way. The original article has been updated.


Balavoine, J. F., de Rochemonteix, B., Williamson, K., Seckinger, P., Cruchaud, A., and Dayer, J.-M. (1984). Identification of interleukin 1-like activity and inhibitor(s) in urine from a patient with acute monoblastic leukemia. Lymphokine Res. 3:23.

Balavoine, J. F., de Rochemonteix, B., Williamson, K., Seckinger, P., Cruchaud, A., and Dayer, J.M. (1986). Prostaglandin E2 and collagenase production by fibroblasts and synovial cells is regulated by urine-derived human interleukin 1 and inhibitor(s). J. Clin. Invest. 78, 1120–1124. doi: 10.1172/JCI112669

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Cavalli, G., and Dinarello, C. A. (2018). Anakinra therapy for non-cancer inflammatory diseases. Front. Pharmacol. 9:157. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01157

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Dinarello, C. A., Rosenwasser, L. J., and Wolff, S. M. (1981). Demonstration of a circulating suppressor factor of thymocyte proliferation during endotoxin fever in humans. J. Immunol. 127, 2517–2519.

PubMed Abstract | Google Scholar

Granowitz, E. V., Santos, A., Poutsiaka, D., Cannon, J. G., Wilmore, D. A., Wolff, S. M., et al. (1991). Circulating interleukin-1 receptor antagonist levels during experimental endotoxemia in humans. Lancet 338, 1423–1424.

Seckinger, P., Lowenthal, J. W., Williamson, K., Dayer, J. M., and MacDonald, H. R. (1987). A urine inhibitor of interleukin 1 activity that blocks ligand binding. J. Immunol. 139, 1546–1549.

PubMed Abstract | Google Scholar

Keywords: interleukin 1, IL-1β, IL-1α, rheumatology, inflammation

Citation: Cavalli G and Dinarello CA (2019) Corrigendum: Anakinra Therapy for Non-cancer Inflammatory Diseases. Front. Pharmacol. 10:148. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00148

Received: 11 January 2019; Accepted: 08 February 2019;
Published: 08 March 2019.

Edited and reviewed by: Paolo Sfriso, University of Padova, Italy

Copyright © 2019 Cavalli and Dinarello. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Giulio Cavalli,
Charles A. Dinarello,