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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Pharmacol. | doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00633

Validation of the General Medication Adherence Scale (GMAS) in Saudi patients with chronic disease

 Atta A. Naqvi1*, Dhafer M. Al-Shayban1, Sayed A. Ghori1,  Abdul Haseeb2, Hani S. Faidah3,  Mansour A. Mahmoud4 and  Mohamed A. Hassali5
  • 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia
  • 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Umm Al Qura University, Saudi Arabia
  • 3Faculty of Medicine Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia
  • 4Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Taibah, Saudi Arabia
  • 5University of Science, Malaysia, Malaysia

The aim was to validate the General Medication Adherence Scale (GMAS) (English version) in Saudi patients with chronic disease.
A month long study was conducted in out-patient department of tertiary care hospitals in three cities of Saudi Arabia that collected data from a randomized sample of Saudi patients with chronic disease. The study aimed to achieve an item-to-subject ratio greater than 1:10. Factor analyses were conducted and fit indices were calculated. Convergent, discriminant, known group and concurrent validities were analysed. Internal consistency was determined using test-retest reliability using Cronbach’s alpha (α), McDonald’s coefficient omega (ωt) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (ρ). Sensitivity analysis was conducted. Data was analysed through SPSS version 23. The study was ethically approved, i.e., (IRB-129-26/6/1439).
The survey gathered responses from 171 patients with a response rate of 85.5%. An item-to-subject ratio of 1:15 was achieved. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure with acceptable fit indices, i.e., NFI = 0.93, TLI = 0.99 and CFI = 0.99, i.e., greater than 0.9. The value of RMSEA was 0.01, i.e., less than 0.08. The tool established construct validity, i.e., convergent and discriminant validities. Known group and concurrent validities were also established. An α value of 0.74 and ωt value of 0.92 was reported. Test-retest reliability ρ = 0.82, p<0.001. The tool had high sensitivity (>75%) and specificity (>80%).
The GMAS-English was successfully validated in Saudi patients with chronic disease.
Medication adherence; patient compliance; medication persistence; chronic illness; Saudi Arabia

Keywords: Medication adherence (MeSH), Patient compliance (medication adherence), Saudi Arabia, Adherence - Compliance - Persistance, Chronic Disease

Received: 13 Jan 2019; Accepted: 17 May 2019.

Edited by:

Tahir M. Khan, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pakistan

Reviewed by:

Juman A. Dujaili, Monash University Malaysia, Malaysia
Dr Maryam Farooqui, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia  

Copyright: © 2019 Naqvi, Al-Shayban, Ghori, Haseeb, Faidah, Mahmoud and Hassali. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Atta A. Naqvi, Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia,