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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Pharmacol. | doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01032

Potential drug-drug interactions in patients with urinary tract infections: a contributing factor in patient and medication safety

Sidra Noor1,  Mohammad Ismail2* and Fahadullah Khan3
  • 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar, Pakistan
  • 2University of Peshawar, Pakistan
  • 3Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

Introduction: Hospitalized patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) often present with comorbid illnesses and are subsequently prescribed multiple medications, which increase the likelihood of drug-drug interactions. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the prevalence, levels, risk factors, and clinical relevance of potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) in hospitalized patients with UTIs. Secondly, we aimed to develop management guidelines and identify monitoring parameters for the most frequent interactions.
Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in internal medicine wards of two tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Clinical profiles of 422 patients with UTIs were reviewed for pDDIs using the Micromedex Drug-Reax®. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association of pDDIs with various risk factors. The clinical relevance of frequent pDDIs was identified by assessing the potential adverse outcomes of pDDIs including patients’ signs, symptoms and abnormal laboratory findings.
Results: Of 422 patients, at least one pDDI was identified in 62.3% patients, while 40% patients had at least one major-pDDI. Total 1086 pDDIs were identified, of which 53.4% and 39.3% were of moderate- and major-severity, respectively. Patients with most frequent pDDIs were presented with hypoglycemia, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hypertension, and decreased therapeutic response. These adverse events were more prevalent in patients taking higher doses of interacting drugs. Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant association of pDDIs with six or more medicines (p<0.001), diabetes mellitus (p<0.001), and ischemic heart disease (p= 0.02), and congestive cardiac failure (p=0.04).
Conclusions: Patients with UTIs present with a considerable number of clinically important pDDIs. Polypharmacy, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, and congestive cardiac failure increase the risk of pDDIs. Knowledge about the most frequent pDDIs will enable healthcare professionals to implement optimized monitoring and management strategies regarding associated adverse consequences in order to ensure patient safety. Most of the interactions can be managed by considering alternative therapy and dose reduction.

Keywords: Patient Safety, potential drug-drug interactions, Urinary Tract Infections, Clinical relevance, Polypharmacy, Adverse drug effects

Received: 06 Mar 2019; Accepted: 13 Aug 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Noor, Ismail and Khan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Mohammad Ismail, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan,