The signaling pathways, and therapeutic targets of antiviral agents: Focusing on the antiviral approaches and clinical perspectives of anthocyanins in the management of viral diseases
- 1School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
- 2Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran
- 3Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
- 4Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago, Chile
As the leading causes of death worldwide, viruses significantly affect global health. Despite the rapid progress in human healthcare, yet there are few virucidal and antiviral therapies to be efficient enough. The rapid emergence of resistance, and high costs, as well as the related side effects of synthetic antiviral drugs, raise the needs to identify novel, effective, and safe alternatives against viral diseases. Nature has been of the most exceptional help and source of inspiration for developing novel multi-target antiviral compounds affecting several steps of the viral life cycle and host proteins. For that matter and due to safety and efficacy limitations as well as high resistance rate of conventional therapies, hundreds of natural molecules are preferred over the synthetic drugs. Besides, natural antiviral agents have shown acceptable antiviral value in both preclinical and clinical trials.
This is the first review regarding molecular and cellular pathways of the virus life cycle, treatment strategies, and therapeutic targets of several viral diseases were reviewed with a particular focus on anthocyanins as promising natural compounds for significant antiviral enhancements. Clinical applications and the need to develop nanoformulation of anthocyanins in drug delivery systems are also considered.
Keywords: Anthocyanins, natural compounds, viral diseases, therapeutic targets, antiviral
Received: 16 Jul 2019;
Accepted: 19 Sep 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Pour, Fakhri, Asgary, Farzaei and Echeverria. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Dr. Mohammad H. Farzaei, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, email@example.com
Dr. Javier Echeverria, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago, Santiago, Chile, firstname.lastname@example.org