Mini Review ARTICLE
Flavonoids as natural anti-inflammatory agents targeting nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) signalling in cardiovascular diseases: A Mini Review
- 1Mahsa University, Malaysia
- 2University of Malaya, Malaysia
- 3National University of Malaysia, Malaysia
- 4Putra Malaysia University, Malaysia
- 5Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as angina, hypertension, myocardial ischaemia and heart failure are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One of the major transcription factors widely associated with CVDs is nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB). NFκB activation initiate the canonical and non-conical pathways that promotes activation of transcription factors leading to inflammation, such as leukocyte adhesion molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. Flavonoids are bioactive polyphenolic compounds found abundantly in various fruits, vegetables, beverages (tea, coffee), nuts and cereal products with cardiovascular protective properties. Flavonoids can be classified into six subgroups based on their chemical structures: flavanones, flavones, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, isoflavones and anthocyanidins. As NFκB inhibitors, these flavonoids may modulate the expression of pro-inflammatory genes leading to the attenuation of the inflammatory responses underlying various cardiovascular pathology. This review presents an update on the anti-inflammatory actions of flavonoids via inhibition of NFκB mechanism supporting the therapeutic potential of these natural compounds in various CVDs.
Keywords: Flavonoids, NFκB signalling, anti-inflammatory, Cardiovascular Diseases, natural compounds 3
Received: 16 Aug 2019;
Accepted: 10 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Choy, Murugan, Leong, Abas, Alias and Mustafa. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. rais Mustafa, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia, email@example.com