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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Pharmacol. | doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01339

Association Study of the Complement Component C4 Gene in Tardive Dyskinesia

 Clement Zai1*, Arun Tiwari1, Gwyneth Zai1, Natalie Freeman1, Jennie Pouget1, James Greco1, Maria Tampakeras1, Sajid Shaikh1, Deanna Herbert1, Heather Emmerson1, Sheraz Cheema1, Nicole Braganza1,  Daniel J. Mueller (Müller)1,  Aristotle Voineskos1,  Gary Remington1 and  Jim Kennedy1
  • 1Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), Canada

Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder that may develop in schizophrenia patients being treated long-term with antipsychotic medication. TD interferes with voluntary movements and leads to stigma, and can be associated with treatment non-adherence. The etiology of TD is unclear, but it appears to have a genetic component. There is emerging evidence of immune dysregulation in TD.
In the current study, we set out to investigate the complex schizophrenia-associated complement component 4 (C4) gene for possible association with TD occurrence and TD severity as assessed by the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) in a sample of 129 schizophrenia patients of European ancestry.
We have genotyped the copy numbers of long and short forms of C4A and C4B gene variants in 129 European ancestry patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We did not find predicted C4A or C4B expression to be associated with TD risk or severity. However, we found the number of copies of C4BL to be associated with TD severity (p=0.038).

Keywords: Pharmacogenetics, tardive dyskinesia (TD), Complement component C4, Schizophrenia, antipsychotic

Received: 22 Jul 2019; Accepted: 18 Oct 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Zai, Tiwari, Zai, Freeman, Pouget, Greco, Tampakeras, Shaikh, Herbert, Emmerson, Cheema, Braganza, Mueller (Müller), Voineskos, Remington and Kennedy. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Mx. Clement Zai, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), Toronto, Canada,