PD-1 inhibitors in the advanced esophageal cancer
- 1West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China
Esophageal cancer (EC) is a lethal disease, and ranks 7th in incidence and 6th in mortality worldwide. Patients are treated with surgery and/or chemoradiotherapy for a curative intent, but for those with advanced diseases systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapy are the mainstay treatment with poor prognosis. For the patients with squamous cell carcinoma and those progressed after chemotherapy, treatment option is even fewer, and effective treatment modalities are urgently needed. Preclinical and clinical studies have found the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors activate T lymphocytes, inhibit cancer growth, and improve survival in cancer patients. Multiple PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have been approved for the management of a variety cancers. Interestingly, a large of proportion of EC patients have tumors with PD-L1 expression and high tumor mutation burden. Trials have been performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in EC patients. This review will summarize the current progress in this field, esp. the toxicities associated with these agents.
Keywords: Esophageal carcinoma, Gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, PD-1 inhibitor, efficacy, Safety
Received: 29 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 07 Nov 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Ding and Hong. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Zhenyu Ding, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, email@example.com