Original Research ARTICLE
Stop turning a blind eye: tobacco smoking among Egyptian patients with Schizophrenia
- 1Neurology and Psychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt
Patients with schizophrenia have considerably higher rates of mortality than general population. Multiple factors may play a role in this. Despite being a major preventable cause of death in general population, smoking is usually overlooked when dealing with patients with schizophrenia. Understanding the pattern of smoking, its severity and the reasons to quit might be helpful in managing patients with schizophrenia and decreasing the mortality gap.
Subjects and Methods
The study included smokers divided into two groups; the first included 346 patients with schizophrenia while the second group had 150 smokers with no mental illness. Both groups were assessed and compared regarding sociodemographic variables, pattern of smoking, severity of nicotine dependence and motivation to quit smoking.
Earlier age of starting to smoke, higher number of cigarettes per day and lower dependency scores were noted in patients with Schizophrenia. Positive correlation was found between positive symptoms and severity of dependence. Specific positive symptoms were correlated to number of cigarettes per day, time before first cigarette. Patients with Schizophrenia showed a significant difference in intrinsic reasons to quit (health concerns and self-control), which were also positively correlated to their positive symptoms score. Linear regression analysis for predictors of FTND score, it was revealed that only age, sex and schizophrenia were significant predictors of FTND score.
Patients with schizophrenia smoke at earlier ages and smoke more cigarettes per day, yet, have less severe dependence than non-schizophrenic counterparts. Positive symptoms play a role in their smoking pattern and severity. Health concerns and self-control are their main motives to quit smoking.
Keywords: tobacco smoking, Nicotine, Schizophrenia, Motivation to quit, Mortality, positive symptoms, PANSS
Received: 29 Jul 2018;
Accepted: 03 Dec 2018.
Edited by:Andrea Fiorillo, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" Naples, Italy
Reviewed by:João M. Castaldelli-Maia, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Brazil
Camilla Callegari, Università degli Studi dell'Insubria, Italy
Copyright: © 2018 Elkholy, Nagy, TAHA, Elhabiby, Yosef and Azzam. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Hussien Elkholy, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Neurology and Psychiatry Department, Cairo, Egypt, firstname.lastname@example.org