Original Research ARTICLE
The association between non-obscene socially inappropriate behavior and symptoms of ADHD and conduct problems in a large sample of adolescents
- 1University of Southampton, United Kingdom
- 2Helmut Schmidt University, Germany
Non-obscene, socially inappropriate behavior (NOSI) is recognized as part of the tic disorder spectrum but has received little attention from researchers to date. A study in 87 patients with Tourette Syndrome showed that comorbid ADHD and conduct disorder were also associated with an increase in socially inappropriate behavior. This study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study to investigate the relationship between NOSI and emotional symptoms, conduct problems and hyperactivity /inattention as assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in 1280 youths, aged 14 years. Furthermore, the relationship between NOSI and decision making processes as assessed by the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) was investigated. Hyperactivity /inattention and conduct problems were significantly associated with NOSI, emotional problems were not. Risk taking was significantly associated with misbehaving in lessons but not with being rude or noisy in public. The results replicate and confirm the association of NOSI with ADHD and conduct problems in a large sample, although it should be stressed that the size of the association was small. The results also suggest that some inappropriate behaviors are related to risk taking behavior, while others are not.
Keywords: Tourette sydrome, ADHD (Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder), Conduct (behavioural) problems, non-obscene socially inappropriate behavior (NOSI), Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT), Decision Making, Millenium Cohort Study
Received: 05 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 15 Aug 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Brandt, Kerner auch Koerner and Palmer-Cooper. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Valerie C. Brandt, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom, V.C.Brandt@soton.ac.uk