Frontiers reaches 6.4 on Journal Impact Factors

This article is part of the Research Topic

Quasars at all cosmic epochs

Original Research ARTICLE

Front. Astron. Space Sci., 12 January 2018 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fspas.2017.00067

Luminous and Obscured Quasars and Their Host Galaxies

Agnese Del Moro1*, David M. Alexander2, Franz E. Bauer3,4,5,6, Emanuele Daddi7, Dale D. Kocevski8, Flora Stanley9 and Daniel H. McIntosh10
  • 1Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany
  • 2Department of Physics, Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom
  • 3Facultad de Física, Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
  • 4Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Santiago, Chile
  • 5EMBIGGEN Anillo, Concepción, Chile
  • 6Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO, United States
  • 7CEA, IRFU, DAp, AIM, Université Paris-Saclay, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • 8Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States
  • 9Department of Space Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, Onsala, Sweden
  • 10Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, United States

The most heavily-obscured, luminous quasars might represent a specific phase of the evolution of the actively accreting supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, possibly related to mergers. We investigated a sample of the most luminous quasars at z ≈ 1 − 3 in the GOODS fields, selected in the mid-infrared band through detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) decomposition. The vast majority of these quasars (~80%) are obscured in the X-ray band and ~30% of them to such an extent, that they are undetected in some of the deepest (2 and 4 Ms) Chandra X-ray data. Although no clear relation is found between the star-formation rate of the host galaxies and the X-ray obscuration, we find a higher incidence of heavily-obscured quasars in disturbed/merging galaxies compared to the unobscured ones, thus possibly representing an earlier stage of evolution, after which the system is relaxing and becoming unobscured.

1. Introduction

The similarity between the accretion history of galaxies and supermassive black holes (SMBHs), peaking at redshift z ≈ 1 − 2 (e.g., Madau et al., 1996; Hopkins et al., 2006; Brandt and Alexander, 2015), suggests that there is a connection between the evolution of a galaxy and the black hole in their center. Such connection has also been hinted by the observed correlations between the BH mass and the velocity dispersion of the stars in the bulge (MBH − σ relation; Ferrarese and Merritt, 2000; Gebhardt et al., 2000) or with the bulge mass (MBHMbulge; Kormendy and Richstone, 1995; Magorrian et al., 1998). Whether this parallel evolution is simply due to a larger gas supply at high redshift, feeding both the SMBH and star formation (SF), or whether there are other processes self-regulating the SMBH and galaxy growth (e.g., AGN feedback) is still uncertain (e.g., Alexander and Hickox, 2012; Kormendy and Ho, 2013).

Studying active galactic nuclei (AGN) at all cosmic epochs is crucial to fully understand the accretion history of the SMBHs and their role in galaxy evolution. However, most of the accretion onto SMBHs is expected to be heavily obscured by dust and gas, making the identification of the most obscured AGN population very challenging, even in the deepest X-ray surveys. According to the unified model (e.g., Antonucci, 1993), AGN appear obscured due to orientation effects, when our line-of-sight crosses high column densities (NH) of circumnuclear material, the so called “torus”. However, it has been suggested that the most heavily-obscured, Compton-thick (CT; where NH>1.5×1024 cm−2) AGN, especially the (intrinsically) most luminous ones, could represent a particular phase of galaxy evolution, associated to a major merger, when a lot of gas and dust are funneled into the center of the galaxy, deeply hiding the active nucleus within it (Di Matteo et al., 2005; Hopkins et al., 2006; see also Alexander and Hickox, 2012, for a review). Yet, the emission reprocessed by the obscuring dust is re-emitted in the mid-infrared (MIR) band, which can therefore be used to find even the most obscured and elusive quasars.

2. Sample Selection

The sample was selected from a large catalog of 24 μm-detected sources within the GOODS-Herschel North and South fields. We performed detailed SED decomposition using Spitzer 8, 16, and 24 μm and Herschel 100, 160, and 250 μm data, to separate the AGN from SF emission. We adopted the AGN and star-forming galaxy (SFG) templates described in Mullaney et al. (2011) and Del Moro et al. (2013); details of the SED fitting are described in Del Moro et al. (2016). Amongst these sources we selected the most luminous quasars in the MIR band, with rest-frame 6 μm luminosity of νLAGN,6 μm>6×1044 erg s−1, corrected for the galaxy contribution, at redshift z = 1 − 3. This selection results in a sample of 33 sources.

3. Analyses and Results

3.1. AGN: Heavily Obscured Population at z ≈ 2

To characterize the quasars in our sample, we used the deep X-ray Chandra data available in the Chandra Deep Field North (CDF-N; 2 Ms; Alexander et al., 2003) and Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S 4 Ms; Xue et al., 2011). For details on the data reduction we refer to Alexander et al. (2003), Luo et al. (2008), and Xue et al. (2011). Of our 33 quasars, 24 (~73%) are detected in the X-ray band, while 9 (~27%) remain undetected, despite being intrinsically very luminous in the MIR band. These sources are candidates to be the most heavily obscured, CT AGN.

For the sources that are detected in the X-rays, we extracted the spectra using ACIS Extract (AE; Broos et al., 2010, 2012) and analyzed them using a simple absorbed power-law model (including Galactic and intrinsic absorption) to constrain the amount of NH. In Figure 1 we show the NH distribution of the sample. We find that the majority of these quasars (16/24; ~67%) are obscured by columns of NH>1022 cm−2, of which more than half (9/16) are heavily obscured (NH>2×1023 cm−2). Amongst these heavily-obscured sources, we identified six of them as CT quasars from the X-ray spectral analysis, using spectral models appropriate for heavily-obscured sources, such as, PLCABS (Yaqoob, 1997) and TORUS (Brightman and Nandra, 2011). The fraction of obscured quasars in our sample reaches ~76%, and 54% of heavily-obscured quasars, if we include the X-ray-undetected sources, assuming these are the most heavily CT ones. Indeed, the comparison between the intrinsic luminosity at 6 μm and the X-ray luminosity upper limit of these sources suggests that the X-ray emission is heavily suppressed compared to the intrinsic LXL6 μm relation found for AGN (e.g., Lutz et al., 2004; Fiore et al., 2009; Gandhi et al., 2009), making them very good candidates to be heavily CT quasars.

FIGURE 1
www.frontiersin.org

Figure 1. Distribution of the X-ray column density (NH) for the X-ray-detected MIR quasars (~70% of the sample). The dashed histogram represents the NH upper limits (calculated at a 90% confidence level).

We note that amongst the X-ray undetected quasars in the sample, there is one source, #28 (see Table 1 from Del Moro et al., 2016), that is now detected in the 7 Ms CDF-S catalog (XID 28; Luo et al., 2017). This source has a very flat effective photon index of Γ < 0.93 (compared to the typical Γ ≈ 1.8 for unabsorbed AGN) and an extremely low rest-frame X-ray luminosity (L0.5-7keV1.5×1041 erg s−1, uncorrected for absorption) compared to its intrinsic luminosity measured in the MIR band (log ν L6 μm = 45.97 erg s−1), consistent with the upper limit reported in our analysis (Del Moro et al., 2016)1, supporting our assumption that the source might be a heavily obscured, CT quasar.

These results suggest that there is a large population of heavily-obscured, intrinsically luminous quasars at high redshift, which are very elusive even for deep X-ray surveys. These sources might constitute a special phase of the BH-galaxy evolution, where the actively growing BH is embedded in large amounts of gas and dust, possibly as a result of a recent merger.

3.2. AGN Host Galaxies: Star-Formation Rates and Merger Fraction

To study the characteristics of the host galaxies of these MIR-luminous quasars, we investigated their star-formation rates (SFRs) and their morphologies, in particular the disturbance or distortion of their morphology, as an indication of galaxy mergers and interactions. We derived the SFR of each galaxy from its far-infrared (FIR) luminosity (or upper limit) resulting from the SED decomposition in the IR band (see section 2 and Del Moro et al., 2016), assuming a Salpeter initial mass function (Salpeter, 1955) and the relation from Kennicutt (1998). We also calculated the average SFR separately for the unobscured/moderately obscured quasars (NH<2×1023 cm−2) and for the heavily-obscured quasars (NH>2×1023 cm−2) in three different redshift bins (see Figure 2). To estimate the average SFRs accounting for the upper limits, we used the Kaplan-Meier (KM) product limit estimator (Kaplan and Meier, 1958), a non-parametric maximum-likelihood estimator of the distribution function (see Stanley et al., 2015, for details on the method).

FIGURE 2
www.frontiersin.org

Figure 2. Average star-formation rate (SFR) for the unobscured/moderately-obscured quasars (NH<2×1023 cm−2; blue squares) and the heavily-obscured quasars (NH>2×1023 cm−2; magenta circles) in our sample, divided in three redshift bins. None of heavily-obscured quasars are detected in the lowest redshift bin. The gray dashed lines represent the SFR track for main-sequence (MS), starburst (SB; SFRMS × 2) and quiescent (Quies.; SFRMS/2) galaxies with a typical mass of M*=9×1010 M (e.g., Elbaz et al., 2011).

We find that the average SFR increases with redshift, in general agreement with the SFR main sequence of galaxies (Figure 2). Moreover, although the heavily-obscured sources seem to have a slightly enhanced SFR compared to the unobscured/moderately obscured ones (especially at z ≈ 2), these differences are not statistically significant, and therefore we find no clear dependence of the amount of SF in the galaxy with the X-ray obscuration of the quasar. This suggests that the obscuration in the X-ray band is likely confined in the nuclear regions and not related to the presence of gas on larger scales (e.g., Rosario et al., 2012; Rovilos et al., 2012).

Using the high-resolution optical HST images available in the GOODS-N and GOODS-S fields, as part of the GOODS and CANDELS projects (Giavalisco et al., 2004; Grogin et al., 2011), we visually inspected the morphology of these galaxies to identify signs of distortions or disturbances, which would indicate a recent galaxy merger/interaction event. We adopted a similar classification scheme to that used by Kocevski et al. (2012); see Del Moro et al. (2016, for details), separating the sources into “disturbed” and “undisturbed”. In Figure 3 we show the fraction of sources having disturbed and undisturbed morphologies over the total, dividing them again into unobscured/moderately obscured (blue squares) and heavily obscured (magenta circles), as in Figure 2. We find that a relatively high fraction of our sources shows signs of distortions/interactions (≈40%), higher than those typically found at low redshift (~15–20% at z < 1; e.g., Cisternas et al., 2011). This is in agreement with the trend of increasing major-merger fraction with redshift seen in previous works (e.g., Conselice et al., 2003; Treister and Urry, 2006; Kartaltepe et al., 2007). We find that, on average, the most-heavily obscured quasars tend to have more disturbed morphologies than the unobscured/moderately obscured ones (≈53 vs. ≈20%, respectively); although the errors on these fractions are large due to the small number of sources in our sample, the difference between the two quasar populations is significant at the 90% confidence level (Fisher exact probability test: P = 0.087). This trend is seen also in other studies (e.g., Kocevski et al., 2015; Ricci et al., 2017). We note, however, that these studies investigated samples in different redshift and/or luminosity ranges compared to ours, and therefore the actual fractions of sources with disturbed morphologies are not directly comparable. The smaller fraction of disturbed systems we found for the unobscured/moderately-obscured quasars could be interpreted within the SMBH-galaxy evolutionary models, as the unobscured quasars would represent a later stage of the evolution compared to the heavily-obscured sources and the distortion features due to mergers or interactions might have faded by the time these quasars are observed as unobscured, given the relaxation time of a galaxy is typically ~200–400 Myr (e.g., Lotz et al., 2010). On the other hand, for the most heavily-obscured quasars, which might represent a younger stage of evolution after a merger in this scenario, the signatures of the recent interactions are still evident in their hosts.

FIGURE 3
www.frontiersin.org

Figure 3. Fraction of MIR quasar hosts showing disturbed and undisturbed galaxy morphologies, classified using HST images. The fractions and 1σ uncertainties for the unobscured/moderately-obscured quasar hosts (NH<2×1023 cm−2) are plotted as blue squares and for the heavily-obscured quasars (NH2×1023 cm−2) as magenta circles. For comparison we also show the fractions for z ≈ 2 AGN and non-AGN samples from Kocevski et al. (2012): filled black triangles and gray squares, respectively. The unobscured/moderately-obscured quasars reside preferentially in undisturbed systems, while the heavily-obscured quasars are equally found in disturbed and undisturbed systems.

4. Conclusions

We have investigated the AGN and host galaxy properties of a sample of 33 quasars at z = 1 − 3 within the GOODS-Herschel fields, selected in the MIR band through detailed SED analysis to have an intrinsic AGN luminosity of νL6 μm>6×1044 erg s−1. Despite being intrinsically the most luminous quasars within these fields, ~26% of them are not detected in the deep 2 and 4 Ms Chandra X-ray data covering these sky areas.

We performed X-ray spectral analysis of the 24 X-ray-detected sources to investigate the AGN properties, and we found that the vast majority (~67%; 16/24 sources) are obscured by NH>1022 cm−2, with more than half of them (9/16) being heavily obscured (NH>2×1023 cm−2). Including the X-ray undetected sources, which are likely to be the most heavily CT AGN, these fractions reach ~76% (~54% are heavily obscured). This means that there is a very large population of heavily obscured, intrinsically luminous quasars at redshift z ≈ 2, which can be revealed in the IR band, but remains (in part) undetected in the X-ray band.

We investigated the host galaxy properties of these quasars through their SFR, measured in the FIR band from SED fitting using Spitzer and Herschel data, and did not find any strong link between the amount of SF and the X-ray obscuration, possibly suggesting that the X-ray obscuration is mostly concentrated in the nuclear regions and does not depend on the presence of gas on larger scales.

We also visually classified the morphology of these quasars as disturbed or undisturbed using high-resolution HST data to identify signs of distortions/asymmetries in the galaxies. We find that a significant fraction (~40%) have disturbed morphologies, suggesting they have experienced a recent merger or interaction event. We find a larger fraction of sources with disturbed morphologies amongst the heavily-obscured quasars (~53%) rather than the unobscured/moderately-obscured ones (~20%). Our results possibly support the SMBH-galaxy evolutionary scenario where the heavily-obscured quasars represent an earlier stage of evolution after the merger, while the unobscured quasars represent a later stage of the evolution, when the system has relaxed, the signs of interaction have already faded, and the nucleus becomes unobscured.

Author Contributions

AD developed the concept, performed all the analyses and wrote the manuscript. DA initiated and helped developing the concept. FB provided the X-ray spectra. ED compiled the multiwavelength catalog, which was used for the SED analysis. DK and DM provided the optical HST images, used to classify the galaxy morphology. FS calculated the mean star-formation rates.

Funding

This research was supported by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC, ST/L00075X/1); CONICYT-Chile (Basal-CATA PFB-06/2007, “EMBIGGEN” Anillo ACT1101, FONDECYT Regular 1141218); the Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism's Millennium Science Initiative through grant IC120009, awarded to The Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS).

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Footnotes

1. ^We note however, that the photometric redshift assumed in our analysis of this source (z = 2.55) differs from that reported in the Luo et al. (2017) catalog (z = 1.81).

References

Alexander, D. M., Bauer, F. E., Brandt, W. N., Schneider, D. P., Hornschemeier, A. E., Vignali, C., et al. (2003). The chandra deep field north survey. XIII. 2 Ms point-source catalogs. Astron. J. 126, 539–574. doi: 10.1086/376473

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Alexander, D. M., and Hickox, R. C. (2012). What drives the growth of black holes? New A Rev. 56, 93–121. doi: 10.1016/j.newar.2011.11.003

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Antonucci, R. (1993). Unified models for active galactic nuclei and quasars. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 473–521. doi: 10.1146/annurev.aa.31.090193.002353

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Brandt, W. N., and Alexander, D. M. (2015). Cosmic X-ray surveys of distant active galaxies. The demographics, physics, and ecology of growing supermassive black holes. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 23:1. doi: 10.1007/s00159-014-0081-z

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Brightman, M., and Nandra, K. (2011). An XMM-Newton spectral survey of 12 μm selected galaxies - I. X-ray data. Month. Notices R. Astron. Soc. 413, 1206–1235. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18207.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Broos, P., Townsley, L., Getman, K., and Bauer, F. (2012). AE: ACIS Extract. Astrophysics Source Code Library.

Broos, P. S., Townsley, L. K., Feigelson, E. D., Getman, K. V., Bauer, F. E., and Garmire, G. P. (2010). Innovations in the analysis of chandra-ACIS observations. Astrophys. J. 714, 1582–1605. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/714/2/1582

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Cisternas, M., Jahnke, K., Inskip, K. J., Kartaltepe, J., Koekemoer, A. M., Lisker, T., et al. (2011). The bulk of the black hole growth since z ~ 1 occurs in a secular universe: no major merger-AGN connection. Astrophys. J. 726:57. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/726/2/57

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Conselice, C. J., Bershady, M. A., Dickinson, M., and Papovich, C. (2003). A direct measurement of major galaxy mergers at z≲3. Astron. J. 126, 1183–1207. doi: 10.1086/377318

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Del Moro, A., Alexander, D. M., Bauer, F. E., Daddi, E., Kocevski, D. D., McIntosh, D. H., et al. (2016). Mid-infrared luminous quasars in the GOODS-Herschel fields: a large population of heavily obscured, Compton-thick quasars at z ≈ 2. Month. Notices R. Astron. Soc. 456, 2105–2125. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stv2748

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Del Moro, A., Alexander, D. M., Mullaney, J. R., Daddi, E., Pannella, M., Bauer, F. E., et al. (2013). GOODS-Herschel: radio-excess signature of hidden AGN activity in distant star-forming galaxies. Astron. Astrophys. 549:A59. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219880

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Di Matteo, T., Springel, V., and Hernquist, L. (2005). Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies. Nature 433, 604–607. doi: 10.1038/nature03335

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Elbaz, D., Dickinson, M., Hwang, H. S., Díaz-Santos, T., Magdis, G., Magnelli, B., et al. (2011). GOODS-Herschel: an infrared main sequence for star-forming galaxies. Astron. Astrophys. 533:A119. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201117239

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ferrarese, L., and Merritt, D. (2000). A fundamental relation between supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. Astrophys. J. Lett. 539, L9–L12. doi: 10.1086/312838

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fiore, F., Puccetti, S., Brusa, M., Salvato, M., Zamorani, G., Aldcroft, T., et al. (2009). Chasing highly obscured QSOs in the COSMOS field. Astrophys. J. 693, 447–462. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/693/1/447

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Gandhi, P., Horst, H., Smette, A., Hönig, S., Comastri, A., Gilli, R., et al. (2009). Resolving the mid-infrared cores of local Seyferts. Astron. Astrophys. 502, 457–472. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/200811368

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Gebhardt, K., Bender, R., Bower, G., Dressler, A., Faber, S. M., Filippenko, A. V., et al. (2000). A relationship between nuclear black hole mass and galaxy velocity dispersion. Astrophys. J. Lett. 539, L13–L16. doi: 10.1086/312840

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Giavalisco, M., Ferguson, H. C., Koekemoer, A. M., Dickinson, M., Alexander, D. M., Bauer, F. E., et al. (2004). The great observatories origins deep survey: initial results from optical and near-infrared imaging. Astrophys. J. Lett. 600, L93–L98. doi: 10.1086/379232

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Grogin, N. A., Kocevski, D. D., Faber, S. M., Ferguson, H. C., Koekemoer, A. M., Riess, A. G., et al. (2011). CANDELS: the cosmic assembly near-infrared deep extragalactic legacy survey. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 197:35. doi: 10.1088/0067-0049/197/2/35

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hopkins, P. F., Hernquist, L., Cox, T. J., Di Matteo, T., Robertson, B., and Springel, V. (2006). A unified, merger-driven model of the origin of starbursts, quasars, the cosmic X-ray background, supermassive black holes, and galaxy spheroids. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 163, 1–49. doi: 10.1086/499298

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kaplan, E. L., and Meier, P. (1958). Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 53, 457–481. doi: 10.1080/01621459.1958.10501452

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kartaltepe, J. S., Sanders, D. B., Scoville, N. Z., Calzetti, D., Capak, P., Koekemoer, A., et al. (2007). Evolution of the frequency of luminous (>=L*V) close galaxy pairs at z < 1.2 in the COSMOS field. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 172, 320–328. doi: 10.1086/519953

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kennicutt, R. C. Jr. (1998). Star formation in galaxies along the hubble sequence. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 36, 189–232. doi: 10.1146/annurev.astro.36.1.189

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kocevski, D. D., Brightman, M., Nandra, K., Koekemoer, A. M., Salvato, M., Aird, J., et al. (2015). Are compton-thick AGNs the missing link between mergers and black hole growth? Astrophys. J. 814:104. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/104

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kocevski, D. D., Faber, S. M., Mozena, M., Koekemoer, A. M., Nandra, K., Rangel, C., et al. (2012). CANDELS: constraining the AGN-Merger connection with host morphologies at z ~ 2. Astrophys. J. 744:148. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/744/2/148

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kormendy, J., and Ho, L. C. (2013). Coevolution (or not) of supermassive black holes and host galaxies. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 51, 511–653. doi: 10.1146/annurev-astro-082708-101811

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kormendy, J., and Richstone, D. (1995). Inward bound—the search for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 33:581.

Google Scholar

Lotz, J. M., Jonsson, P., Cox, T. J., and Primack, J. R. (2010). The effect of mass ratio on the morphology and time-scales of disc galaxy mergers. Month. Notices R. Astron. Soc. 404, 575–589. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16268.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Luo, B., Bauer, F. E., Brandt, W. N., Alexander, D. M., Lehmer, B. D., Schneider, D. P., et al. (2008). The chandra deep field-south survey: 2 ms source catalogs. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 179, 19–36. doi: 10.1086/591248

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Luo, B., Brandt, W. N., Xue, Y. Q., Lehmer, B., Alexander, D. M., Bauer, F. E., et al. (2017). The chandra deep field-south survey: 7 ms source catalogs. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 228:2. doi: 10.3847/1538-4365/228/1/2

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Lutz, D., Maiolino, R., Spoon, H. W. W., and Moorwood, A. F. M. (2004). The relation between AGN hard X-ray emission and mid-infrared continuum from ISO spectra: scatter and unification aspects. Astron. Astrophys. 418, 465–473. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20035838

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Madau, P., Ferguson, H. C., Dickinson, M. E., Giavalisco, M., Steidel, C. C., and Fruchter, A. (1996). High-redshift galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field: colour selection and star formation history to z˜4. Month. Notices R. Astron. Soc. 283, 1388–1404. doi: 10.1093/mnras/283.4.1388

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Magorrian, J., Tremaine, S., Richstone, D., Bender, R., Bower, G., Dressler, A., et al. (1998). The demography of massive dark objects in galaxy centers. Astron. J. 115, 2285–2305. doi: 10.1086/300353

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Mullaney, J. R., Alexander, D. M., Goulding, A. D., and Hickox, R. C. (2011). Defining the intrinsic AGN infrared spectral energy distribution and measuring its contribution to the infrared output of composite galaxies. Month. Notices R. Astron. Soc. 414, 1082–1110. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18448.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ricci, C., Bauer, F. E., Treister, E., Schawinski, K., Privon, G. C., Blecha, L., et al. (2017). Growing supermassive black holes in the late stages of galaxy mergers are heavily obscured. Month. Notices R. Astron. Soc. 468, 1273–1299. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stx173

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Rosario, D. J., Santini, P., Lutz, D., Shao, L., Maiolino, R., Alexander, D. M., et al. (2012). The mean star formation rate of X-ray selected active galaxies and its evolution from z ~ 2.5: results from PEP-Herschel. Astron. Astrophys. 545:A45. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219258

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Rovilos, E., Comastri, A., Gilli, R., Georgantopoulos, I., Ranalli, P., Vignali, C., et al. (2012). GOODS-Herschel: ultra-deep XMM-Newton observations reveal AGN/star-formation connection. Astron. Astrophys. 546:A58. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201218952

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Salpeter, E. E. (1955). The luminosity function and stellar evolution. Astrophys. J. 121:161.

Google Scholar

Stanley, F., Harrison, C. M., Alexander, D. M., Swinbank, A. M., Aird, J. A., Del Moro, A., et al. (2015). A remarkably flat relationship between the average star formation rate and AGN luminosity for distant X-ray AGN. Month. Notices R. Astron. Soc. 453, 591–604. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stv1678

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Treister, E., and Urry, C. M. (2006). The evolution of obscuration in active galactic nuclei. Astrophys. J. Lett. 652, L79–L82. doi: 10.1086/510237

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Xue, Y. Q., Luo, B., Brandt, W. N., Bauer, F. E., Lehmer, B. D., Broos, P. S., et al. (2011). The chandra deep field-south survey: 4 ms source catalogs. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 195:10. doi: 10.1088/0067-0049/195/1/10

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Yaqoob, T. (1997). X-ray transmission in cold matter: nonrelativistic corrections for compton scattering. Astrophys. J. 479, 184–189. doi: 10.1086/303843

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Keywords: galaxies: active, quasars: general, quasars: supermassive black holes, X-rays: galaxies, infrared: galaxies, galaxies: star formation

Citation: Del Moro A, Alexander DM, Bauer FE, Daddi E, Kocevski DD, Stanley F and McIntosh DH (2018) Luminous and Obscured Quasars and Their Host Galaxies. Front. Astron. Space Sci. 4:67. doi: 10.3389/fspas.2017.00067

Received: 30 October 2017; Accepted: 18 December 2017;
Published: 12 January 2018.

Edited by:

Ascensión Del Olmo, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Spain

Reviewed by:

Lorena Hernandez-Garcia, University of Valparaíso, Chile
Begoña Garcia-Lorenzo, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain

Copyright © 2018 Del Moro, Alexander, Bauer, Daddi, Kocevski, Stanley and McIntosh. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Agnese Del Moro, adelmoro@mpe.mpg.de