Skip to main content

Navigation group

Article types

Frontiers offers multiple article types to maximize your options for disseminating your work. Some article types, such as those that mention medicine, are section-specific. Only article types that appear in the drop-down menu during the submission process are available for submission to the selected section.

Please refer to your preferred journal and section to clarify which article types are available.

Ensure that any manuscript you submit conforms to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for ethics, as well as to the general Frontiers article requirements. All submitted manuscripts will be checked by plagiarism detection software.

All Frontiers articles are peer-reviewed, receive a DOI, are citable, published in PDF and HTML format, and submitted for indexing in relevant digital archives.

More useful information about submitting:

Original Research

Original Research articles report on primary and unpublished studies. Original Research may also encompass confirming studies and disconfirming results which allow hypothesis elimination, reformulation and/or report on the non-reproducibility of previously published results. Original Research articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 12,000 and may contain no more than 15 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (A-type article) to publish an Original Research article. Original Research articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Materials and Methods, 4) Results, 5) Discussion.

Methods

Methods articles present either a new or established method, protocol, or technique that is of significant interest in the field. Methods articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 12,000 and may contain no more than 15 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (A-type article) to publish a Methods article. Method articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction (outlining the protocol and its possible applications), 3) Materials and Equipment (including a list of reagents/ materials and/or equipment required; formulation of any solutions where applicable), 4) Methods (including objectives and validation of the method; step-by-step procedures; timing of each step or related series of steps; pause points; example(s) of application and effectiveness; details of precision/ accuracy and limits of detection or quantification, where applicable) , 5) (Anticipated) Results (describing and illustrating with figures, where possible, the expected outcome of the protocol; advantages, limitations, possible pitfalls and artifacts and any troubleshooting measures to counteract them), 6) Discussion. Any analytical methods applied to the data generated by the protocol must be referenced or described. Results must be replicable.

Technology Report

Technology Reports present a cutting-edge technology and/or software or a new application of a known technology or software. Technology Reports introduce the basic technical background of the new technology and evaluate the advantages and the limitations of the approach, as well as its applications. Technology Reports are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 12,000 and may include up to 15 Figures/Tables. Any registered Frontiers user, including companies, may submit a Technology Report. Authors are required to pay a fee (A-type article) to publish a Technology Report.

Review

Review articles cover topics that have seen significant development or progress in recent years, with comprehensive depth and a balanced perspective. Reviews should present a complete overview of the state of the art (and should not merely summarize the literature), as well as discuss the following: 1) Different schools of thought or controversies, 2) Fundamental concepts, issues, and problems, 3) Current research gaps, 4) Potential developments in the field. Review articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 12,000 and may contain no more than 15 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (A-type article) to publish a Review article. Review articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Subsections relevant for the subject, 4) Discussion. Review articles must not include unpublished material (unpublished/original data, submitted manuscripts, or personal communications) and may be rejected in review or reclassified, at a significant delay, if found to include such content.

Mini Review

Mini Review articles cover focused aspects of a current area of investigation and its recent developments. They offer a succinct and clear summary of the topic, allowing readers to get up-to-date on new developments and/or emerging concepts, as well as discuss the following: 1) Different schools of thought or controversies, 2) Current research gaps, 3) Potential future developments in the field. Mini Reviews articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 3,000 and may contain no more than 2 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (B-type article) to publish a Mini Review article. Mini Review articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Subsections relevant for the subject, 4) Discussion. Mini Review articles must not include unpublished material (unpublished/original data, submitted manuscripts, or personal communications) and may be rejected or reclassified, at a significant delay, if found to include such content.

Hypothesis and Theory

Hypothesis and Theory articles present a novel argument, interpretation or model intended to introduce a new hypothesis or theory. They should provide the following: 1) New interpretation of recent data or findings in a specific area of investigation, 2) Accurate presentation of previously posed hypotheses or theories, 3) Hypothesis presented should be testable in the framework of current knowledge, 4) May include original data as well as personal insights and opinions. Hypothesis and Theory articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 12,000 and may contain no more than 15 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (A-type article) to publish a Hypothesis and Theory article. Hypothesis and Theory articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Subsections relevant for the subject, 4) Discussion.

Perspective

Perspective articles present a viewpoint on a specific area of investigation. They should provide the following: 1) Discuss current advances and future directions, 2) Clear presentation of the authors’ perspective, 3) Accurate presentation and citations of other authors’ work, 4) May include original data as well as personal insights and opinions. Perspective articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 3,000 and may contain no more than 2 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (B-type article) to publish a Perspective article. Perspective articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Subsections relevant for the subject, 4) Discussion.

Data Report

Data Report articles present a description of research datasets. Datasets must be deposited in a public repository and must be fixed and made publicly available upon publication of the report. Data Reports articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 3,000 and may contain no more than 2 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (C-type article) to publish a Data Report article. Data Report articles should have the following format: 1) Introduction, 2) Methods used to collect the data, including data collection period, filters applied, and information on how readers may interpret the dataset and reuse the data, 3) Should include some analysis of the data but should not report the results of any single study or group of studies, 4) Relevant subsections, but cannot include Results or Discussion. Data Reports must include the name of the dataset, the database/repository where it has been submitted and the link for confidential peer-review (which should be updated with the public link before publication). Any published Data Report will be considered for retraction should the data be removed from the repository or the access become restricted. Any updates to the dataset(s) should be deposited as independent versions in a repository and the relevant information may be published as Addendum/Commentary linked to the initial Data Report. Any detailed analyses or new scientific insights relating to the Data Report can be submitted as independent research articles. The protocols and methodology used to collect the data can also be submitted as Methods articles.

Brief Research Report

Brief Research Report articles present original research and/or preliminary findings in a more succinct way, and with fewer details, than Original Research articles. Additionally, in line with the Frontiers ethos of publishing scientifically-sound discoveries, Brief Research Reports also encourage submission of negative results and may report on the non-reproducibility of previously published results. Brief Research Reports articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 4,000 and may contain no more than 4 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (B-type article) to publish a Brief Research Report. Brief Research Report articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Method, 4) Results, 5) Discussion. Supplementary material may be included with Brief Research Reports.

Correction

Corrigendum/Addendum: should authors notice errors that affect the scholarly record or the integrity of the paper, authors are encouraged to submit a correction online. The correction must detail the reason(s) for the error(s) and include only the elements (e.g. sections, sentence, figure) of the manuscript being revised or corrected. All authors of the original paper need to agree to the request for changes. The contribution to the field statement should be used to clearly state the reason for the Correction. Depending on the extent of the correction required, corrections may require peer review. Authors are informed that requests for changes beyond that described here may not be accepted for publication.

Erratum: should authors notice differences between their approved galley proofs and the final published article, thus leading to errors that affect the scholarly record or the integrity of the paper, authors are encouraged to submit a request for erratum to the Frontiers Production Office (production.office@frontiersin.org), clearly specifying the error and the correct information.

Editorial

Editorials are submitted exclusively by the host editor(s) of a Frontiers Research Topic, to convey to the reader the aims and objectives of the research that pertains to the topic, as well as placing it in a broader context. The Editorial should present the contributing articles of the Research Topic but should not be a mere table of contents. As the final contributing article to the Research Topic, Editorials should be submitted once all expected articles have been accepted and published. Editorials should not include unpublished or original data and the inclusion of references is strongly encouraged. Editorial articles may contain 1 Figure and have a word count of 1,000 for Topics with 5-10 articles. The word limit can be increased for each additional article in the Topic, up to a maximum of 5,000 words for 50 articles or more. Topic editors are not required to pay a fee to publish an Editorial article. Submissions are required to have the title Editorial: "Title of Research Topic".

Technology and Code

Technology & Code articles present new technology, code and/or software or a new application of a known technology or software. This article type aims to open new avenues for theoretical and experimental investigation, data analysis or data reduction within the field of study. Technology & Code articles can also feature studies that implement existing algorithms under novel settings. Technology & Code articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 12,000 and may contain no more than 15 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (A-type article) to publish Technology & Code article. Technology & Code articles related to innovative software solutions and/or design should be novel, presented in a well-documented, human-readable format and should be placed online in a repository, with an associated DOI/URI for retrieval. To better support the code documentation, authors can also upload a metadata file in different formats (i.e. JSON-LD, Microdata, RDFa) that incorporates all the relevant information. Authors can refer to the schema.org vocabulary, and to the SoftwareApplication/SoftwareSourceCode and Dataset related specifications. Technology & Code articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Method (including any code description), 4) Results (including examples of use and limitations), 5) Discussion (including scalability and limitations). The following information must also be included: project link (e.g. sourceforge, github), operating system (e.g. Windows, Linux, platform independent), programming language (e.g. Python), any restrictions for non-academic use (e.g. licence needed).