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Systematic Review ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Educ. | doi: 10.3389/feduc.2019.00092

Learning and Satisfaction in Webinar, Online, and Face-to-Face Instruction: A Meta-Analysis

  • 1Institut für Qualität und Weiterbildung, Technische Hochschule Deggendorf, Germany

Kirkpatrick’s four-level training evaluation model assumes that a positive correlation exists between satisfaction and learning. Several studies have investigated levels of satisfaction and learning in synchronous online courses, asynchronous online learning management systems, and synchronous face-to-face classroom instruction. The goal of the present meta-analysis was to cumulate these effect sizes and test the predictive validity of Kirkpatrick’s assumption. In this connection, particular attention was given to a prototypical form of synchronous online courses – so called “webinars”. The following two research questions were addressed: (a) Compared to asynchronous online and face-to-face instruction, how effective are webinars in promoting student learning and satisfaction? (b) What is the association between satisfaction and learning in webinar, asynchronous online and face-to-face instruction? The results showed that webinars were descriptively more effective in promoting student knowledge than asynchronous online (Hedges’ g = 0.29) and face-to-face instruction (g = 0.06). Satisfaction was negligibly higher in webinars compared to asynchronous online instruction (g = 0.12) but was lower in webinars to face-to-face instruction (g = -0.33). Learning and satisfaction were negatively associated in all three conditions, indicating no empirical support for Kirkpatrick’s assumption in the context of webinar, asynchronous online and face-to-face instruction.

Keywords: Webinar, Asynchronous Online Learning Environments, face-to-face teaching, Adult Learning, Satisfaction, Kirkpatrick evaluation model

Received: 07 Jun 2019; Accepted: 12 Aug 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Ebner and Gegenfurtner. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Mr. Christian Ebner, Institut für Qualität und Weiterbildung, Technische Hochschule Deggendorf, Deggendorf, Germany,