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Original Research ARTICLE

Front. Energy Res. | doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2021.632992

Transactive Energy in an Urban Environment: A Case Study of Local Generation and Flexibility Potentials in a Singaporean Urban District Provisionally accepted The final, formatted version of the article will be published soon. Notify me

 Kai Zhang1, 2*, Sebastian Troitzsch1, 2, Si-Yue Zhang3, Erine Siew Pheng Teh4, Lalitha Subramanian3 and  Tobias Massier2
  • 1Technical University of Munich, Germany
  • 2Campus for Research Excellence And Technological Enterprise (CREATE), Singapore
  • 3Electricité de France (France), France
  • 4Singapore Institute of Technology, Singapore

This paper presents a case study of distributed generation and flexibility potential for a multi-energy system in an urban district in Singapore. The analysis incorporates real-life data of a local energy system consisting of flexible loads (i.e. district cooling demand from air-conditioned buildings), and distributed generators (DGs) (i.e. waste-to-energy (W2E) generators, photovoltaic (PV) generators) from a representative study area. The demand-side flexibility (DSF) potentials from air-conditioned buildings are derived based on a state-space model and its underlying base-load estimation. Besides the conventional consideration of PV system integration in the urban environment, we conduct a feasibility study of the distributed W2E technology deployment and estimated the generation potentials for the study area. Furthermore, to facilitate the flexibility and energy exchange, market frameworks are proposed to harvest the energy and flexibility from distributed energy resources (DERs) and in the real-time market context in Singapore.

Keywords: Transactive energy, Distributed energy resources, Energy Community, Urban district, demand-side flexibility

Received: 24 Nov 2020; Accepted: 15 Jan 2021.

Copyright: © 2021 Zhang, Troitzsch, Zhang, Teh, Subramanian and Massier. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Mr. Kai Zhang, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany,