Skip to main content

EDITORIAL article

Front. Ecol. Evol., 21 September 2022
Sec. Biogeography and Macroecology
Volume 10 - 2022 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2022.1035859

Editorial: The role of rivers in the origins, evolution, adaptation, and distribution of biodiversity

  • 1Laboratory of Avian Ecology and Evolution, Department of Zoology, Center of Bioscience, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil
  • 2National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus, Brazil
  • 3Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 4School of Science, Engineering and Environment, University of Salford, Manchester, United Kingdom

Rivers represent ubiquitous landscape features and affect biodiversity in fundamental ways. Not only do they provide the medium necessary to sustain aquatic life, but they also influence the structure and biodiversity of both riparian and non-riparian habitats. Therefore, rivers can potentially affect the origins, evolution, adaptation, and distribution of both aquatic and terrestrial biota. The goal of this Research Topic was to provide a forum to discuss recent advances in the study of the role of rivers in the ecology and evolution of biodiversity. Specifically, we aimed to highlight the current and historical role of rivers in the evolutionary process and reveal different ways by which rivers affect biodiversity. In this editorial, we will review (i) the role of rivers in the origin and evolution of species; (ii) how river reorganization can affect species diversity; (iii) the effect of riverine habitats as environmental filters; and (iv) the importance of community-based management for biodiversity conservation.

Rivers and the origin and evolution of terrestrial species

The association of rivers with the speciation process in non-aquatic species can be traced back to Wallace's explorations in the Amazon, where he documented that several species of primates had closely related, yet morphologically different, populations across some major rivers (Wallace, 1852). These observations were subsequently interpreted as evidence of the vicariant force of rivers in the speciation process, a model that became known as the Riverine Barrier Hypothesis (Sick, 1967; Capparella, 1988, 1991). Although there are many examples of rivers acting as biogeographical barriers throughout the world, it is in the Amazon that this phenomenon is more widespread and best documented. Nonetheless, it took over a century to fully appreciate the role of Amazonian rivers in defining species' distributions (Haffer, 1969, 1974; Hershkovitz, 1977; Cracraft, 1985). Increasingly detailed range maps have allowed biologists to investigate the role of rivers as biogeographical barriers for entire communities (Ayres and Clutton-Brock, 1992; Gascon et al., 2000; Hayes and Sewlal, 2004) and to formulate evolutionary hypotheses to account for congruent river-bounded distributions (Cracraft and Prum, 1988; Silva and Oren, 1996; Bates et al., 1998).

By the end of the 20th century, molecular studies started to link phenotypic and genotypic variation across riverine barriers (Capparella, 1988, 1991), inspiring legions of scholars who investigated the role of rivers in dividing evolutionary lineages (Marks et al., 2002; Aleixo, 2004; Ribas et al., 2012). These were followed by multi-taxon studies that began to reveal commonalities, but also some unique taxon-specific distribution patterns, including barrier effects of relatively minor Amazonian rivers (Naka et al., 2012; Boubli et al., 2015) and disparate times of divergence among co-distributed taxa (Naka and Brumfield, 2018). With the advent of next generation sequencing, multi-locus studies are shedding light into patterns of gene flow and introgression across rivers, particularly around river headwaters, where rivers are much narrower and potentially cease to represent meaningful biogeographic barriers (Pulido-Santacruz et al., 2018).

Despite major advances in the field, most of these studies were restricted to the Amazon basin and to either birds or primates. Recent studies, however, show that the dissecting power of rivers are not restricted to this region (Harcourt and Wood, 2011). Molecular studies have shown the role of rivers such as the Congo (Anthony et al., 2007), the Mississippi (Jackson and Austin, 2010), and the Paraná (Kopuchian et al., 2020) as potential current and historic biogeographic barriers. Similarly, in the last decade, studies evaluating the role of rivers as biogeographical barriers in non-avian and non-primate groups started to appear in the literature, including studies on lizards (Avila-Pires et al., 2012), frogs (Fouquet et al., 2012, 2015; Godinho and da Silva, 2018), invertebrates (Guilherme et al., 2022), and plants (Nazareno et al., 2017, 2019).

In this Research Topic, five articles include new data that broaden our understanding on the role of rivers in the speciation process, filling important taxonomic, geographical, and theoretical gaps. Three studies provide contrasting views on the role of Amazonian rivers in structuring different mammal and avian lineages. Whereas Silva et al. found that the distribution of Amazonian Phyllostomidae bats was not defined by rivers, Mourthé et al. found that rivers were key in structuring Amazonian primate diversity, finding a significant effect of annual discharge and river sinuosity on primate beta-diversity. Working on birds, Dornas et al. investigated the role of two eastern Amazonian rivers as barriers, in a region with few prior biogeographical studies. Using a comparative approach, these authors found that 14 avian lineages responded differently to these riverine barriers. These contrasting results suggest that (i) ecological traits and dispersal ability may predict the importance of rivers as biogeographical barriers, and (ii) different lineages may have different histories and be affected by rivers in different ways along their evolutionary history.

Using molecular data, two studies explored the role of rivers in the evolutionary history of the herpetofauna, including an Amazonian heliothermic lizard (Kentropyx calcarata) and a treefrog (Dendropsophus elegans) in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Cronemberger et al. evaluated the genetic structure of K. calcarata in the light of different evolutionary scenarios and found that although Amazonian rivers likely acted as barriers to dispersal, they were not the sole drivers of diversification. Pirani et al., on the other hand, describe the genomic divergence and phenotypic admixture of D. elegans, showing the effect of the Rio Doce as a biogeographical barrier. These results add to the growing body of information pointing this river in the Atlantic Forest as a major barrier, as shown in the past for small non-volant mammals (Costa, 2003), a species of gecko (Pellegrino et al., 2005) and a species of bird (Cabanne et al., 2008).

Quite surprisingly, until now we lacked basic knowledge on how riverine barriers affect species dispersal. Conducting a series of dispersal experiments in real-life conditions, Naka et al. evaluated how hundreds of individuals of dozens of bird species cope with the challenge of crossing a river gap in the Amazon basin. Using a methodology previously used in Panama by Moore et al. (2008), this study showed that nearly a third of the individuals tested failed at crossing even 100 m of open water. Their results revealed that ultimately, dispersal limitations are directly related to the flying apparatus of birds. Species with more rounded wings performed worse in the experiments than those species with more elongated ones. Surprisingly, ecological traits, such as habitat preference and river island specialization had little predictive power in the outcome of the experiments. These results open new perspectives on experimental studies to evaluate the dissecting power of rivers on biodiversity.

Riverine landscape evolution and diversification

Until very recently, most riverine studies viewed rivers as fixed vicariant forces. However, rivers do change through time. Drainage network reorganization can have pervasive effects on species distributions. One specific way by which rivers reorganize, is by a process known as river capture, where topographic changes may alter river networks (Bishop, 1995). The effect of these changes on biodiversity became known as the River Capture Hypothesis (Albert et al., 2018) and has shown great potential in the understanding of species distributions, particularly in fish. Recent studies have shown that river network rearrangements can also promote speciation in lowland Amazonian birds (Musher et al., 2022).

In this Research Topic, two studies investigate this phenomenon at two different scales. Val et al. conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to test the River Capture Hypothesis using nearly 15,000 species of obligate freshwater fishes in more than 3,000 river basins. Their results indicate that fish species richness can be explained by landscape evolution models, including the River Capture, Mega Capture, and the Intermediate Capture Rate Hypotheses, supporting the conclusion that landscape changes represent a meaningful mechanistic driver of net diversification in riverine and riparian organisms. At a smaller scale, Sá Leitão et al. used genomic data to investigate if river reorganization could explain the genetic differentiation and structure of two Amazonian dwarf cichlids. Their results are consistent with the River Capture Hypothesis and offer a mechanistic link between the isolation and differentiation of fish populations and the drainage evolution of the basin, suggesting that the geological history of the region may be responsible for promoting species diversification.

Rivers as environmental filters

The ecological characteristics of rivers also affect the distribution of species, not only by restricting their movements, but also by providing differential habitats along its margins. Recent studies from northern Amazonia, have shown that water sediments are key to explaining bird species composition (Laranjeiras et al., 2019, 2021) and that avian communities respond promptly to changes in riverine habitats and climatic variables along ecological gradients (Naka et al., 2020). In this Research Topic, two articles show how habitat heterogeneity can drive compositional differences among both avian and butterfly species assemblages. Sinha et al. showed the influence of both biotic and abiotic factors in defining compositional differences among avian local species assemblages in the Himalayas. Using standardized avian surveys, they found that riparian bird communities in the drier and more seasonal Western Himalayas were poorer and more clustered phylogenetically and functionally than those communities in the Eastern Himalayas, pointing out the influence of habitat and climatic factors on patterns of avian beta diversity. Back in the Amazon, Rabelo et al. show that seasonal flooding of Amazonian forests strongly determines the composition of butterfly assemblages. In this case, small topographic variation can create distinct flooding gradients that directly affect species abundance and community composition. These results add to the growing body of work demonstrating that environmental filtering plays a crucial role in structuring biotic communities. Together, these results suggest that habitat heterogeneity can create the conditions that maintain distinct communities and even provide ecological gradients along which populations can diverge and possibly speciate.

This is, in fact, what Hay et al. found in their genomic study of the adaptive evolution of an Amazonian Characin fish. These authors found that variation in water characteristics was a key factor contributing to adaptive divergence. Specifically, variation in genes involved in acid-sensitive ion transport and light-sensitive photoreceptor pathways were strongly associated with water pH and turbidity variability. These results offer a hint at how river characteristics can drive genomic changes through natural selection, impacting the distribution of biodiversity in riverine habitats.

Conservation of riverine systems

Overfishing and overhunting represent significant threats to riverine biodiversity. While natural reserves are key for protecting riverine environments and their biodiversity, governments often fail in providing secure conservation. In fact, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to human activities (Laurance et al., 2012). Recent studies have shown that community-based conservation management can integrate both socio-economic needs with conservation goals in tropical ecosystems (Campos-Silva et al., 2018), providing benefits to entire biotas (Campos-Silva et al., 2021).

In this Research Topic, Andrade et al. analyze historical time series of protection of four different species of turtles in the Brazilian Amazon. Using data from 1974 to 2019, they estimate that over a million nests and more than 30,000,000 hatchings were protected by both government and community-based protection initiatives. They compare the effect of both kinds of protection, and showed that in some cases, government-based protection resulted in higher support capacity in the production of nests and hatchlings, but in other cases, communities were more efficient in protecting both nests and hatchlings. As such, they conclude that community-based protection and monitoring programs are an important component of conservation and should be incorporated by the government's environmental agencies for turtle management in the Amazon.

Final considerations

Despite the importance of riverine systems to both human wellbeing and biodiversity conservation, tropical rivers, which harbor an exceptional and disproportionate high number of species, are under assault (Latrubesse et al., 2017). Main threats include their use for energy production (i.e., hydroelectrical dams) and canalization to control their courses and allow navigation (Anderson et al., 2018). At the same time, climate change is disrupting natural patterns of rainfall and flooding worldwide (Barichivich et al., 2018), further modifying natural riverine ecosystems.

Although we have come a long way since Wallace's visit to the Amazon in the 19th century, our discovery of biological patterns is often outpaced by habitat destruction. Therefore, it is key to both increase protection of tropical rivers and accelerate and expand the kind of studies that are presented in this Research Topic. Understanding the complexity of riverine systems often requires great amounts of human and financial resources and we urge scientists to both deepen their Research Topics and use novel strategies to engage both local communities and the general public in the conservation of tropical rivers.

The increasing number of whole genome sequences available for an ever-growing number of taxa, allows us to better understand the past and present role of rivers as vicariate agents, as well as to understand current and past patterns of gene flow across barriers. On the other hand, ecological studies are broadening our understanding of rivers as environmental filters. Such advances can now be better contextualized by the outstanding advances in the understanding of the geologic, climatic, and geomorphological changes in riverine landscapes (Sawakuchi et al., 2022).

Unfortunately, the rate of destruction of many of these pristine systems is greater than the rate of new scientific discoveries. Particular attention should be given to rivers and their potential for evolutionary change in organisms when designing new protected area networks. We hope this Research Topic not only adds to the science of riverine biology, but also highlights the many opportunities that lay down the road, and at the same time call the attention to the urgent need of conserving the world's rivers, both for human wellbeing and biodiversity conservation.

Author contributions

LN did the leading writing. All authors contributed with ideas and reviews.

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the authors involved in this Research Topic, and particularly to the many Guest Editors and reviewers, whose generous work made this possible. We are also grateful to the Frontiers team for their professional and outstanding editorial job. This Research Topic was possible due to the many full waivers offered by Frontiers, which allowed authors from the global south to publish their work as Open Access, resulting in a more inclusive and collaborative science.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher's note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

References

Albert, J. S., Val, P., and Hoorn, C. (2018). The changing course of the Amazon River in the Neogene: center stage for neotropical diversification. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 16, e180033. doi: 10.1590/1982-0224-20180033

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Aleixo, A. (2004). Historical diversification of a terra firme forest bird superspecies: a phylogeographic perspective on the role of different hypotheses of Amazonian diversification. Evolution 58, 1303–1317. doi: 10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb01709.x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Anderson, E. P., Jenkins, C. N., Heilpern, S., Maldonado-Ocampo, J. A., Carvajal-Vallejos, F. M., Encalada, A. C., et al. (2018). Fragmentation of Andes-to-Amazon connectivity by hydropower dams. Sci. Adv. 4, eaao1642. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aao1642

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Anthony, N. M., Johnson-Bawe, M., Jeffery, K., Clifford, S. L., Abernethy, K. A., Tutin, C. E., et al. (2007). The role of Pleistocene refugia and rivers in shaping gorilla genetic diversity in central Africa. PNAS 104, 20432–20436. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0704816105

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Avila-Pires, T. C., Mulcahy, D. G., Werneck, F. P., and Sites, J. W. Jr. (2012). Phylogeography of the teiid lizard Kentropyx calcarata and the sphaerodactylid Gonatodes humeralis (Reptilia: Squamata): testing a geological scenario for the lower Amazon–Tocantins basins, Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetologica 68, 272–287. doi: 10.1655/HERPETOLOGICA-D-11-00021.1

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ayres, J. M., and Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1992). River boundaries and species range size in amazonian primates. Am. Nat. 140, 531–537. doi: 10.1086/285427

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Barichivich, J., Gloor, E., Peylin, P., Brienen, R. J., Schöngart, J., Espinoza, J. C., et al. (2018). Recent intensification of Amazon flooding extremes driven by strengthened Walker circulation. Sci. Adv. 4, eaat8785. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aat8785

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Bates, J. M., Hackett, S. J., and Cracraft, J. (1998). Area-relationships in the Neotropical lowlands: a hypothesis based on raw distributions of passerine birds. J. Biogeogr. 25, 783–793. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.1998.2540783.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Bishop, P. (1995). Drainage rearrangement by river capture, beheading and diversion. Prog. Phys. Geogr. 19, 449–473. doi: 10.1177/030913339501900402

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Boubli, J. P., Ribas, C., Alfaro, J. W. L., Alfaro, M. E., Silva, M. N. F., Pinho, G. M., et al. (2015). Spatial and temporal patterns of diversification on the Amazon: A test of the riverine hypothesis for all diurnal primates of Rio Negro and Rio Branco in Brazil. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 82, 400–412. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.09.005

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Cabanne, G. S., d'Horta, F. M., Sari, E. H., Santos, F. R., and Miyaki, C. Y. (2008). Nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeography of the Atlantic Forest endemic Xiphorhynchus fuscus (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae): biogeography and systematics implications. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 49, 760–773. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2008.09.013

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Campos-Silva, J. V., Hawes, J. E., Andrade, P., and Peres, C. A. (2018). Unintended multispecies co-benefits of an Amazonian community-based conservation programme. Nat. Sustain. 1, 650–656. doi: 10.1038/s41893-018-0170-5

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Campos-Silva, J. V., Peres, C. A., Hawes, J. E., Abrahams, M. I., Andrade, P. C., and Davenport, L. (2021). Community-based conservation with formal protection provides large collateral benefits to Amazonian migratory waterbirds. PLoS ONE 16, e0250022. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250022

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Capparella, A. P. (1988). “Genetic variation in neotropical birds: implications for the speciation process,” in Acta XIX Congressus Internationalis Ornithological, ed H. Ouellet (Ontario, CA: University of Ottawa Press), 1658–1664.

PubMed Abstract | Google Scholar

Capparella, A. P. (1991). “Neotropical avian diversity and riverine barriers,” in Proceedings 20th International Ornithological Congress, ed B. D. Bell (Wellington: Congressional Trust Board).

Google Scholar

Costa, L. P. (2003). The historical bridge between the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest of Brazil: a study of molecular phylogeography with small mammals. J. Biogeogr. 30, 71–86. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.2003.00792.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Cracraft, J. (1985). Historical biogeography and patterns of differentiation within the South American avifauna: Areas of endemism. Ornithol. Monogr. 36, 49–84. doi: 10.2307/40168278

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Cracraft, J., and Prum, R. O. (1988). Patterns and processes of diversification: speciation and historical congruence in some Neotropical birds. Evolution 42, 603–620. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.1988.tb04164.x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fouquet, A., Courtois, E. A., Baudain, D., Lima, J. D., Souza, S. M., Noonan, B. P., et al. (2015). The trans-riverine genetic structure of 28 Amazonian frog species is dependent on life history. J. Trop. Ecol. 31, 361–373. doi: 10.1017/S0266467415000206

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fouquet, A., Loebmann, D., Castroviejo-Fisher, S., Padial, J. M., Orrico, V. G., Lyra, M. L., et al. (2012). From Amazonia to the Atlantic Forest: molecular phylogeny of Phyzelaphryninae frogs reveals unexpected diversity and a striking biogeographic pattern emphasizing conservation challenges. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 65, 547–561. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2012.07.012

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Gascon, C., Williamson, B., and Fonseca, G. A. B. (2000). Receding forest edges and vanishing reserves. Science 288, 1356–1358. doi: 10.1126/science.288.5470.1356

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Godinho, M. B. D. C., and da Silva, F. R. (2018). The influence of riverine barriers, climate, and topography on the biogeographic regionalization of Amazonian anurans. Sci. Rep. 8, 1–11. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-21879-9

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Guilherme, D. R., Pequeno, P. A. C. L., Baccaro, F. B., Franklin, E., dos Santos Neto, C. R., and Souza, J. L. P. (2022). Direct and indirect effects of geographic and environmental factors on ant beta diversity across Amazon basin. Oecologia 198, 193–203. doi: 10.1007/s00442-021-05083-7

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Haffer, J. (1969). Speciation in Amazonian forest birds. Science 165, 131–137. doi: 10.1126/science.165.3889.131

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Haffer, J. (1974). Avian speciation in tropical South America. Publ. Nuttall Ornithol. Club 14, 390.

Google Scholar

Harcourt, A. H., and Wood, M. A. (2011). Rivers as barriers to primate distributions in Africa. Int. J. Primatol. 33, 168–183. doi: 10.1007/s10764-011-9558-z

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hayes, F., and Sewlal, J. N. (2004). The Amazon River as a dispersal barrier to passerine birds: effects of river width, habitat and taxonomy. J. Biogeogr. 31, 1809–1818. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2004.01139.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hershkovitz, P. (1977). Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini) With an Introduction to Primates. Vol. 1. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press, 1132.

Google Scholar

Jackson, N. D., and Austin, C. C. (2010). The combined effects of rivers and refugia generate extreme cryptic fragmentation within the common ground skink (Scincella lateralis). Evolution 64, 409–428. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00840.x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kopuchian, C., Campagna, L., Lijtmaer, D. A., Cabanne, G. S., García, N. C., Lavinia, P. D., et al. (2020). A test of the riverine barrier hypothesis in the largest subtropical river basin in the neotropics. Mol. Ecol. 29, 2137–2149. doi: 10.1111/mec.15384

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Laranjeiras, T. O., Naka, L. N., and Cohn-Haft, M. (2019). Using river color to predict Amazonian floodplain forest avifaunas in the world's largest blackwater river basin. Biotropica 51, 330–341. doi: 10.1111/btp.12650

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Laranjeiras, T. O., Naka, L. N., Leite, G. A., and Cohn-Haft, M. (2021). Effects of a major Amazonian river confluence on the distribution of floodplain forest avifauna. J. Biogeogr. 48, 847–860. doi: 10.1111/jbi.14042

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Latrubesse, E. M., Arima, E. Y., Dunne, T., Park, E., Baker, V. R., d'Horta, F. M., et al. (2017). Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin. Nature 546, 363–369. doi: 10.1038/nature22333

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Laurance, W. F., Carolina Useche, D., Rendeiro, J., Kalka, M., Bradshaw, C. J., Sloan, S. P., et al. (2012). Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas. Nature 489, 290–294. doi: 10.1038/nature11318

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Marks, B. D., Hackett, S. J., and Capparella, A. P. (2002). Historical relationships among Neotropical lowland forest areas of endemism as determined by mitochondrial DNA sequence variation within the Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae: Glyphorynchus spirurus). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 24, 153–167. doi: 10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00233-6

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Moore, R. P., Robinson, W. D., Lovette, I. J., and Robinson, T. R. (2008). Experimental evidence for extreme dispersal limitation in tropical forest birds. Ecol. Lett. 11, 960–968. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01196.x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Musher, L. J., Giakoumis, M., Albert, J., Del-Rio, G., Rego, M., Thom, G., et al. (2022). River network rearrangements promote speciation in lowland Amazonian birds. Sci. Adv. 8, eabn1099. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abn1099

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Naka, L. N., Bechtoldt, C. L., Henriques, L. M. P., and Brumfield, R. T. (2012). The role of physical barriers in the location of avian suture zones in the Guiana Shield Northern Amazon. Am. Nat. 179, E115–E132. doi: 10.1086/664627

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Naka, L. N., and Brumfield, R. T. (2018). The dual role of Amazonian rivers in the generation and maintenance of avian diversity. Sci. Adv. 4, eaar8575. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aar8575

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Naka, L. N., Laranjeiras, T. O., Lima, G. R., Plaskievicz, A. C., Mariz, D., Costa, B. M. S., et al. (2020). The Avifauna of the Rio Branco, an Amazonian evolutionary and ecological hotspot in peril. Bird Conserv. Int. 30, 21–39. doi: 10.1017/S0959270919000133

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Nazareno, A. G., Dick, C. W., and Lohmann, L. G. (2017). Wide but not impermeable: Testing the riverine barrier hypothesis for an Amazonian plant species. Mol. Ecol. 26, 3636–3648. doi: 10.1111/mec.14142

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Nazareno, A. G., Dick, C. W., and Lohmann, L. G. (2019). Tangled banks: a landscape genomic evaluation of Wallace's Riverine barrier hypothesis for three Amazon plant species. Mol. Ecol. 28, 980–997. doi: 10.1111/mec.14948

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Pellegrino, K. C., Rodrigues, M. T., Waite, A. N., Morando, M., Yassuda, Y. Y., and Sites, J. W Jr. (2005). Phylogeography and species limits in the Gymnodactylus darwinii complex (Gekkonidae, Squamata): genetic structure coincides with river systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 85, 13–26. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2005.00472.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Pulido-Santacruz, P., Aleixo, A., and Weir, J. T. (2018). Morphologically cryptic Amazonian bird species pairs exhibit strong postzygotic reproductive isolation. Proc. R. Soc. B 285, 20172081. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2017.2081

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ribas, C. C., Aleixo, A., Nogueira, A. C. R., Miyaki, C. Y., and Cracraft, J. (2012). A palaeobiogeographic model for biotic diversification within Amazonia over the past three million years. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Series B Biol. Sci. 279, 681–689. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.1120

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Sawakuchi, A.O., Schultz, E.D., Pupim, F.N., Bertassoli, D.J., Souza, D.F., Cunha, D.F., et al. (2022). Rainfall and sea level drove the expansion of seasonally flooded habitats and associated bird populations across Amazonia. Nat. Commun. 13, 1–15. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-32561-0

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Sick, H. (1967). “Rios e enchentes na Amazônia como obstáculo para avifauna”, in Atas do Simposio sobre a Biota Amazônica, vol.5, ed H. Lent (Rio de Janeiro: Conselho de Pesquisas), 495–520.

Google Scholar

Silva, J. M. C., and Oren, D. C. (1996). Application of parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) in Amazon biogeography: an example with primates. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 59, 427–437. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1996.tb01475.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Wallace, A. R. (1852). On the monkeys of the Amazon. Proc. Zool. Soc. 20, 107–110.

Google Scholar

Keywords: biodiversity, river, riverine barriers, ecological filters, riparian habitats, conservation

Citation: Naka LN, Werneck FP, Rosser N, Pil MW and Boubli JP (2022) Editorial: The role of rivers in the origins, evolution, adaptation, and distribution of biodiversity. Front. Ecol. Evol. 10:1035859. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2022.1035859

Received: 03 September 2022; Accepted: 08 September 2022;
Published: 21 September 2022.

Edited and reviewed by: Peter Convey, British Antarctic Survey (BAS), United Kingdom

Copyright © 2022 Naka, Werneck, Rosser, Pil and Boubli. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Luciano N. Naka, luciano.naka@ufpe.br

Download