The Role of Inflammation in Depression and Fatigue
- 1University of Alberta, Canada
Depression and fatigue are conditions responsible for heavy global societal burden, especially in patients already suffering from chronic diseases. These symptoms have been identified by those affected as some of the most disabling symptoms which affect the quality of life and productivity of the individual. While many factors play a role in the development of depression and fatigue, both have been associated with increased inflammatory activation of the immune system affecting both the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). This is further supported by the well described association between diseases that involve immune activation and these symptoms in autoimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and immune system activation in response to infections, like sepsis. Treatments for depression also support this immunopsychiatric link. Antidepressants have been shown to decrease inflammation, while higher levels of baseline inflammation predict lower treatment efficacy for most treatments. Those patients with higher initial immune activation may on the other hand be more responsive to treatments targeting immune pathways, which have been found to be effective in treating depression and fatigue in some cases. These results show strong support for the hypothesis that depression and fatigue are associated with an increased activation of the immune system which may serve as a valid target for treatment. Further studies should focus on the pathways involved in these symptoms and the development of treatments that target those pathways will help us to better understand these conditions and devise more targeted treatments.
Keywords: Psychoneuroimmunology, Depression, Fatigue, autoimmune disease, Inflammation
Received: 22 Apr 2019;
Accepted: 08 Jul 2019.
Edited by:Masaaki Murakami, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Japan
Reviewed by:Ralf Lürding, University of Regensburg, Germany
Andrea Stofkova, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Czechia
Copyright: © 2019 Lee and Giuliani. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Mx. Fabrizio Giuliani, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, firstname.lastname@example.org