ORIGINAL RESEARCH article
Sec. Fluid Mechanics
This article is part of the Research Topic
Quantum Computing Applications in Computational Engineering
Investigating Hardware Acceleration for Simulation of CFD Quantum Circuits
- 1University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
Among the many computational models for quantum computing, the Quantum Circuit Model is the most well-known and used model for interacting with current quantum hardware. The practical implementation of quantum computers is a very active research field. Despite this progress, access to physical quantum computers remains relatively limited. Furthermore, the existing machines are susceptible to random errors due to quantum decoherence, as well as being limited in number of qubits, connectivity and built-in error correction. Simulation on classical hardware is therefore essential to allow quantum algorithm researchers to test and validate new algorithms in a simulated-error environment. Computing systems are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, using a variety of hardware accelerators to speed up computational tasks. One such type of accelerators, FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays), are reconfigurable circuits that can be programmed using standardised high-level programming models such as OpenCL an SYCL.
FPGAs allow to create specialised highly-parallel circuits capable of mimicking the quantum parallelism properties of quantum gates, in particular for the class of quantum algorithms where many different computations can be performed concurrently or as part of a deep pipeline. They also benefit from very high internal memory bandwidth.
This paper focuses on the analysis of quantum algorithms for applications in computational fluid dynamics. In this work we introduce novel quantum-circuit implementations of model lattice-based formulations for fluid dynamics, specifically the D1Q3 model using quantum computational basis encoding, as well as, efficient simulation of the circuits using FPGAs. This work forms a step toward quantum circuit formulation of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM).
For the quantum circuits implementing the nonlinear equilibrium distribution function in the D1Q3 lattice model, it is shown how circuit transformations can be introduced that facilitate the efficient simulation of the circuits on FPGAs, exploiting their fine-grained parallelism. We show that these transformations allow us to exploit more parallelism on the FPGA and improve memory locality. Preliminary results show that for this class of circuits the introduced transformations improve circuit execution time. We show that FPGA simulation of the reduced circuits results in more than 3× improvement in performance per Watt compared to the CPU simulation.
Keywords: Quantum circuit simulation, Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), FPGA - field programmable gate array, quantum circuit transformation, Hardware Acceleration
Received: 21 Apr 2022;
Accepted: 08 Aug 2022.
Copyright: © 2022 Moawad, Vanderbauwhede and Steijl. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Mr. Youssef Moawad, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom