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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Pharmacol. | doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01263

Stress distribution and collagen remodeling of periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement

Zixin Li1, Min Yu1, Shanshan Jin1, Yu Wang1, Rui Luo2, Bo Huo2, Dawei Liu1, Danqing He1, Yanheng Zhou1 and  Yan Liu1*
  • 1Peking University Hospital of Stomatology, China
  • 2School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, China

Periodontal ligament (PDL), as a mechanical connection between the alveolar bone and tooth, plays a pivotal role in force-induced orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). However, how mechanical force controls remodeling of PDL collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) is largely unknown. Here, we aimed to evaluate the stress distribution and ECM fiber remodeling of PDL during the process of OTM. An experimental tooth movement model was built by ligating a coil spring between the left maxillary first molar and the central incisors. After activating the coil spring for 7 days, the distance of tooth movement was 0.324 ± 0.021 mm. The 3D finite element modeling showed that the PDL stress obviously concentrated at cervical margin of five roots and apical area of the mesial root, and the compression region was distributed at whole apical root and cervical margin of the medial side (normal stress < -0.05 MPa). After force induction, ECM fiber organization was disordered and immature collagen III fibers significantly increased, especially in the apical region, which corresponds to the stress concentration and compression area. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis and interleukin-1β expression were dramatically increased in the apical region of the force group. Taken together, orthodontic loading could change the stress distribution of PDL and induce a disordered arrangement and remodeling of ECM fibers. These findings provide orthodontists both mechanical and biological evidences that root resorption is prone to occur in the apical area during the process of OTM.

Keywords: Extracellular Matrix, Collagen remodeling, Stress distribution, Finite Element, Periodontal Ligament, Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM)

Received: 31 Jul 2019; Accepted: 30 Sep 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Li, Yu, Jin, Wang, Luo, Huo, Liu, He, Zhou and Liu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Yan Liu, Peking University Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, 100081, Beijing Municipality, China, orthoyan@bjmu.edu.cn