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Front. Sustain. Food Syst., 13 January 2022
Sec. Sustainable Food Processing
Volume 5 - 2021 |

Electrohydrodynamic Drying in Agribusiness: Literature Review

  • Faculty of Agroindustrial Engineering, Department of Antioquia, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia

In agribusiness, drying is a unitary operation that optimizes the production and preservation of products and raw materials. Drying is performed through different traditional methods, one of the most recently studied is the electrohydrodynamic drying EHD which uses an electric field that allows decreasing the processing time thus increasing the drying speed of raw materials and consuming less energy. In this article, a review was carried out through Scopus using a search equation with the keywords “Electrohydrodynamic drying,” “food” and “AGRI” which resulted in a total of 145 articles; which were analyzed through in-depth reading, analyzing aspects such as year, author, keywords, countries, quartile, journal, relationship with agroindustry, mathematical models used and applications in agro-industrial products, this analysis was complemented with the application of Vantage Point software through co-occurrence matrices and cluster analysis. Recent applications were found in Carrot, Chicken, Sea Cucumber, Goji Berry, Peppermint Leaf, Quince, Potato, Blueberry, Aquatic Products, Banana Slices, Grape Pomace, Blueberry, Apple, Mushroom, Wheat, and Mushroom Slices, mathematical models with application in EHD drying were also found, such as Henderson and Pabis, Page, Logarithmic, Quadratic, Newton/Lewis, Diffusion and exponential.


The unit operation of drying is an important operation for the preservation of food and non-food products, likewise, to give added value to different raw materials or by-products of it (Collazo et al., 2018; Guiné, 2018; Zhou and Wang, 2018); this process decreases the amount of water in a product to eliminate or reduce microbial activity that may alter it, extending its shelf life (Omolola et al., 2015), but rather seeks to preserve its nutritional and organoleptic characteristics for the consumer, reduce packaging, transportation, storage, and processing costs (Xia and Mujumdar, 2020). The best-known types of drying are natural convection drying, radiation drying, forced convection drying, refractive window drying, and spray drying (Collazo et al., 2018).

Conventional drying methods present limitations, such as, product quality is not uniform due to excessive drying times, in turn, drying time is prolonged due to low energy efficiencies between the drying medium and the raw material (Mujumdar and Law, 2010). On the other hand, color change in dehydrated products is a factor and parameter that determines the final quality, being the most important from the point of view of a consumer (Rubiano et al., 2016), this is due to biochemical browning reactions during drying modifying not only color but also flavor, texture and even showing losses in nutritional value (Marzec et al., 2020). This results in low drying yields and high operating costs, therefore, it is essential to research and develop new drying methods adapted to the new emerging technologies in the world, allowing to solve the limitations of conventional drying while satisfying the quality and stability requirements of the product, and at the same time reducing operating costs and energy expenditure (Mujumdar and Law, 2010; Qadri et al., 2019).

The application of infrared heating to drying food is of special interest recently, a technique based on the property of water to absorb infrared radiation. This heating technique is especially suitable for drying thin layers of substance with a large surface area exposed to radiation (Salehi and Kashaninejad, 2018). Additionally, IR radiation has been used in combination with various drying methods because it has the advantages of increasing drying efficiency, that is, increasing the actual absolute humidity change in the dryer compared to the saturated absolute humidity change, equally, seeks to reduce the drying time of products (Salehi, 2019). Another contemporary technology to counteract the implications of conventional drying is based on heat pump (HP) technology, which is increasingly used in the food industry today due to its low energy consumption, less quality loss, high thermal efficiency and high drying performance. The energy saving of HP drying is based on the principle of the reverse Carnot cycle (refrigeration cycle), it could recover energy from the exhaust and independently control the temperature and humidity of the air (Salehi, 2021).

Although new technologies are being studied that offer a possible solution to the disadvantages of traditional drying in the food industry, there are other techniques that have been little studied and that are projected as new trends for agribusiness, such as electrohydrodynamic drying (EHD) that being an unconventional drying alternative promises to be a new non-thermal technology proving to be effective in addressing the main limitations of conventional drying by managing lower energy consumption during the process (Iranshahi et al., 2020). As a sustainable drying technology, electrohydrodynamic drying is a potential technology if one wishes to replace poor drying methods, however, some problems have hindered the commercial implementation of this technology, exemplifying, little is known about the different moisture transfer mechanisms that occur during drying and presents a challenge to scale up EHD drying from pilot scale to industrial applications (Iranshahi et al., 2020).

The purpose of this article is to provide a literature review of the research and information currently collected on electrohydrodynamic drying, to provide future researchers with an approach to the subject and some theoretical bases. In addition, we seek to answer the following questions: What are the applications of EHD drying in agribusiness. What are the advantages and disadvantages of foods dried by this new technology? For this purpose, the paper is divided into four parts. Initially, a theoretical framework is presented with the main terms on unitary operation for a good interpretation of this; in the second part, the methodology used is presented with emphasis on keywords, the use of the Scopus platform with search equations, and in-depth analysis of each document; for the third part, a discussion on the axes of mathematical models and trends in the application of agro-industrial products was carried out. Finally, the conclusions of the study are presented.

Conceptual Framework

In generic terms, the drying process involves the removal of unbound (free) moisture from the surface first and then the bound moisture from inside the food product until a defined limit is reached. It involves simultaneous heat and mass transfer operations (Babu et al., 2018). EHD drying refers to the removal of water from the wet solid exposed to a strong electric field due to the aerodynamic action of the so-called corona wind, ionic wind, or electric wind (Martynenko and Kudra, 2019). Both airflow and ionic wind play a crucial role in enhancing water evaporation. Ionic wind provides charge transfer to the surface of the wet material, which is measured as total current or current density distribution (Bashkir et al., 2020).

The ionic wind disturbs the boundary layer developed from the grounded surface on which the biological material is placed, impinging on the wet biological material by disturbing the saturated air layer, which enhances evaporation thus improving mass transfer between the biological surface and the ambient air (Singh et al., 2012). This wind originates from a sharp end of the electrically conductive pin (needle) or thin horizontal wire as a result of ions leaving this pin/wire and impinging on the surface of the material being dried (Martynenko and Kudra, 2019).

The kinetics of EHD is similar to that of conventional convective drying, following drying periods of constant and decreasing speed due to the nature of the generated ionic wind. Depending on the nature of the dielectric material, the EHD curve varies. Most of the high humidity model materials, such as agar gels and wet fabrics, are reported to exhibit a relatively longer constant velocity drying period (Anukiruthika et al., 2020).

The electric current generated in the so-called drift zone is represented by heat transfer types such as the combination of conduction (in which ion movement occurs under an electric field), convection (involving charge transport with airflow), and diffusion mechanisms (Anukiruthika et al., 2020).

Mathematical modeling to determine mass and energy transfer in this type of drying starts from analytical and numerical models (Elmizadeh et al., 2018; Kudra and Martynenko, 2019). For Kudra and Martynenko (2019) the variables to be known at EHD can be categorized into four:

a. Electrical characteristics such as voltage, current, and electric field strength.

b. Discharge and collection electrode geometry.

c. Environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, pressure, and airflow.

d. Material properties such as thickness, porosity, surface roughness, among others.

Commonly, EHD drying needs to start with corona discharge by creating a non-uniform electric field with a starting electric field strength Ei, however, it will depend on the geometry of the discharge electrode, and particularly for each case it is determined from the formula of Peek, Equation 1, exemplifying, if it is desired to calculate the electric field strength at the spherical tip of the pin it can be determined how (Kudra and Martynenko, 2019):

Ei=3.1 x 106 (1+0.308r)    (1)

Where r is the radius of curvature of the tip of the pin at the discharge electrode (cm).

The intensity of the charge flow is the product of a strong electric field, which can be quantified using Equation 2 by measuring the electric current between the two types of electrodes, collector, and discharge. Generally, in the vicinity of the collector electrode, the electric field strength is calculated as the ratio of the voltage to the space E = V/d. Starting from the above hypothesis, Equation 2 can be presented in the written form of Equation 3 (Kudra and Martynenko, 2019).

I= g0>ε0bAd3(VV0)2    (2)
I= g0ε0bAd(EE0)2    (3)

Where V is the voltage applied to the electrodes, (V); Vo corresponds to the onset voltage required to initiate corona discharge (V); A is the surface area of the collector electrode (m2); ε0 represents the vacuum dielectric permittivity equal to 8.86 x10−12 F/m; b represents the ionic mobility, which is equal to 1.6 x10−4 m2/(V·s) for positive ions and 2.1 x10−4 m2/(V·s) for negative ions; d is the spacing between the discharge and collection electrodes (m), and go represents the dimensionless geometry factor (Kudra and Martynenko, 2019).

Subsequently, electrohydrodynamic drying results from the conversion of electrical to mechanical energy and has a convective nature, to determine the ionic wind velocity in the electric field it is quantified with Equation 4 (Elmizadeh et al., 2018):

v =i ε0ρ    (4)

Where v is the airflow velocity or corona wind (m/s), i is the electric field strength (V/m) and ρ is the density of air (kg/m3). In Figure 1, Defraeye and Martynenko (2018) schematized the EHD process by postulating two characteristic regions or phases of EHD, the ionization phase, and the drift phase.


Figure 1. EHD process. Source: Defraeye and Martynenko (2018).

The specific energy consumption (SEC) is defined as the amount of energy required to evaporate the unit mass of water in kJ·kg−1. Using Equation 5 one can determine the specific energy consumption for EHD drying in kJ·kg−1 (Yang and Ding, 2016).

SEC= V x Im0 mt x Δt    (5)

Where V is the voltage (kV), I is the ionic wind current (μA), mo is the weight of the body to be dried (kg), mt is the weight of samples at a time t, Δt is the time (h) (Yang and Ding, 2016).

To know the energy efficiency of the high voltage power supply, Equation 6 is posed, for such, the input and output current-voltage ratio (Dalvand et al., 2014) is to be measured.

η=Is x VsIe x Ve    (6)

Where I is the current (A) and V is the applied voltage (V), the index s means output, while e means the input of the power supply.

Because the application of EHD is performed at ambient temperature and pressure conditions, it is considered a suitable alternative to conventional processes using high airflows at elevated temperatures as in turn this technology can be classified as a non-thermal process and a novel alternative that can be used to dry heat-sensitive materials (Singh et al., 2012).

Because the application of EHDEHD drying has been used to dry wheat (Cao et al., 2004), tomato slices (Esehaghbeygi and Basiry, 2011), carrot slices (Ding et al., 2015), mushroom slices (Taghian and Havet, 2015a,b), apple slices (Martynenko and Zheng, 2016), potatoes (Yu et al., 2017), among others, improving their shelf life, preserving the quality of the food, increasing the drying speed thus decreasing the prolonged time in said.


To obtain good results in the review, the work was divided into four stages as follows:

• Stage 1: Starting with the search and selection of the topic to be worked on. Drying was taken as a topic to work on; subsequently, we chose to work specifically on electrohydrodynamic drying for which we investigated trends and emerging technologies where this process is used in the agro-industrial sector. At this stage, the keywords used later for the search equation were also chosen.

• Stage 2: For this stage, the construction of the search equation was carried out to access articles to find applications, trends, and others regarding this type of drying. Keywords such as electrohydrodynamic drying, food, and agri were then applied for the construction of this equation; finally, for this stage, the following equation was arrived at: ALL (((“Electrohydrodynamic drying”) AND (food)) AND (LIMIT-TO (SUBJAREA, “AGRI”)) applied in Scopus, this equation was also bounded for the range of years from 2015 to 2021; with this equation, a total of 145 articles were found.

• Stage 3: Review of articles and selection of those that apply. All articles found with this equation to date (145 articles) were reviewed. For the selected articles an Excel template/format was developed which collects the following information on each article: year, title, authors, countries, journal, cite score (journal rating), Scimago quatil, keywords, summary, relationship with the agro-industrial sector, mathematical model, the purpose of the article and its news/conclusions. This information was used as input for the application of Vantage Point technology watch software, which uses natural language processing - NLP, co-occurrence matrices, and cluster analysis.

These stages can also be seen in Figure 2.


Figure 2. Stages of the creation of the paper. Source: the authors.


In taking data from articles and patents, the following results were obtained from the search equation: ALL ((“Electrohydrodynamic drying”) AND (food)) AND (LIMIT-TO (SUBJAREA, “AGRI”)), 145 scientific articles were found, these results are comprised between the years 2015–2021, from the articles found 28 were selected that are related to the drying electrohydrodynamic of food, especially effects such as drying kinetics, color degradation, and energy consumption (Martynenko and Zheng, 2016). The analysis of the results obtained from the selected articles was classified and related to countries, years, authors, keywords, number of publications, which were represented by graphs shown in Figures 38.


Figure 3. Number of items per year. Source: Authors.

The Vantage point is a text engineering software that uses techniques such as analysis through the NPL language, co-occurrence matrices, cluster analysis, among others. The insight provided by Vantage Point allows you to quickly find who, what, when, and where, allowing you to clarify relationships and find critical patterns, turning your information into knowledge (VantagePoint - The VantagePoint, 2021), giving operators early warning of trend changes (Auckenthaler, 2021). From the database extracted from Scopus, data were filtered, and later these data were imported to the Vantage point software to finally obtain different matrices and graphs of keywords, key phrases, and phrases related to countries.

In Figure 3, we observe the number of articles that have been published on the emerging technology of electrohydrodynamic drying in the last 5 years 2015–2021, As shown by the year 2020 where the highest number of publications were made regarding the topic. This technology is growing in research and development. It is an innovative technology that takes advantage of the phenomenon of electrically induced dehydration in intense electric fields. It has recently gained a great deal of interest due to its non-thermal nature, particularly suitable for heat-sensitive biomaterials such as food, medicinal plants, and other biomaterials. (Martynenko and Kudra, 2019).

Publications by Countries

High-quality food drying can be defined as a drying technology, which protects the qualities of fresh foods such as color, flavor, nutrients, rehydration, appearance, and uniformity during the drying process. Some high-efficiency, energy-saving, and environmentally friendly drying technologies have gradually replaced traditional drying technologies to simultaneously shorten drying time and improve product quality (Zhang et al., 2017). Therefore, Figure 4 shows the countries that have published publications on the EHD drying study, the highest percentage of participation corresponds to Canada with 26% being the country with more publications on the subject, followed by Iran with 17%, China with 14%, highlighting Chile Latin American country with a participation of 3%, in total 10 countries have published publications on this emerging technology.


Figure 4. Countries that made publications. Source: Authors.

Scientific Journals

In Figure 5 the relationship between scientific journals and the number of publications made on the EHD section taken for the study of this article is shown. Driving interests by continuing research in the development of new innovative drying technologies. In addition, there are emerging challenges (e.g., food security, resource depletion, climate change, etc.) around the world that are further driving the food industry in the search for technological innovations to add value to these commodities to remain competitive and profitable in a sustainable manner (Sabarez, 2021). Particular interest is expressed for scientific journals focused on food or agribusiness in this technology, with the Journal of Food Engineering having the most publications with a 15% share, followed by Food and Bioproducts Processing with 11% and Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies with 11%.


Figure 5. Journals that made the publications. Source: Authors.


Keywords are important because they connect the content with what is being searched for through search platforms, making it easier and more practical to obtain information. Figure 6 shows the most important keywords found in articles related to this emerging technology. The Keywords with the highest mention is Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) being the word most found in the articles studied, followed by Energy, Drying, EHD drying, Corona discharge.


Figure 6. Keywords found. Source: Authors based on Vantage Point software.

Key Phrases

To determine the key phrases in the selected articles, the computational methodology of body language processing (NLP) is used, which allows the analysis of the text, giving easy and reliable results. Figure 7 shows the number of important key phrases related to the publications of the studied topic. The phrase with the highest mention was Electrohydrodynamic (EHD), followed by rehydration rate, Electric field, Air velocity, Dried mushroom slices.


Figure 7. Key Phrases. Source: The authors are based on Vantage Point software.

Phrases Related to Countries

Electrohydrodynamic drying technology (EHD) is particularly suitable for improving the drying of heat-sensitive materials, mainly food products. It is a promising method to convection dry high-value agricultural products without using heat (Sabarez, 2021). It has been used to dry food products, such as chicken breast (Rahbari et al., 2020), apple (Martynenko and Zheng, 2016), mushroom (Somayeh, 2015). In Figure 8, we observe the relationship of the most important phrases with the countries that have researched EHD drying, it is worth noting that Canada is the country where the phrase Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) is mostly found in its publications, followed by China and France.


Figure 8. Co-occurrence Matrix - Key phrases related to Countries. Source: Authors based on Vantage Point software.

As shown in Table 1, the information found with the search equation was tabulated to synthesize and demonstrate the current findings on EHD drying and to identify the mathematical models in EHD drying. This synthesis was segmented by year of publication of the article, author(s), the product covered, or if it had a theoretical purpose under theoretical reference and the purpose of the article.


Table 1. Synthesis of the Scopus database search.


Mathematical Models

We were able to identify seven mathematical models most used in electrohydrodynamic drying, which are presented in Table 2, in this same table you can see the application that each author has given to these models. In these studies, the objective was to compare each model and define the most efficient one, the models are suitable to simulate drying curves, establish a simple relationship between average moisture content and time, but some studies require establishing the relationship between the drying curve and other physical phenomena such as diffusion (Singh et al., 2015).


Table 2. Mathematical models.

In addition, the use of statistical models, SPSS Version 16.0 for Windows and one-way ANOVA [single-factor analysis of variance) was identified to calculate the moisture ratio between carrot slices under alternating electric field and no electric field (control)] (Ding et al., 2015). Some studies have identified theoretical models based on Fick's second law, used to determine moisture content and diffusion (Pirnazari, 2016). It is worth mentioning that these models discussed in the review are models that are not found in the conventional literature.

Trends in the Application of Agro-Industrial Products

During the literature review and as evidenced by the equation used for the paper's search, emphasis was placed on agriculture and even more specifically on food. As a result of these particularities, the main results were classified in Table 3; thus, we have berries, carrots, mushrooms (specifically mushroom), potatoes, and, as processed food, quince (snack in some countries).


Table 3. Principal products.

The berries were tested for pretreatment, changes during electrohydrodynamic drying, changes in the fruit, and other variables. Very generally, berries subjected to conventional drying (such as forced air), have changes in color, damage to the skin of the fruit, loss of components, etc. However, it is said that EHD drying brings improvements in these issues. The drying rate and quality of the fruit improved, the skin of the fruit was less affected, no color changes were noted and it was able to deactivate enzymes without losing other important components. In case some of the characteristics are compromised, pretreatments such as scanning electron microscopy or infrared spectroscopy are proposed, which, for example, save time and contribute to the maintenance of berry quality (Yang and Ding, 2016). In the case of mushrooms for example these variables were also analyzed, although it was not very useful, it was found that EHD drying is a good method for this food, but equally the color was negatively affected, the porosity will be very high and the shear strength increases (so it is difficult to cut it) (Somayeh, 2015; Taghian and Havet, 2015a,b).

Studies were also conducted on the effects of this drying method on carrots, which are usually dried to extract carotenes, and this was precisely one of the characteristics analyzed in these studies. The drying speed improves with this method and as a result of this increase, a higher carotene content, better product quality, and higher rehydration; the time also improves these characteristics and a very important one which is the extraction yield and antioxidant activity (Ding et al., 2015; Salehi and Taghian, 2020).

Rehydration could be greatly affected by factors such as voltage and distance from the needles this is reflected in products such as carrot, potato (Yu et al., 2017) and even and in fact in higher proportion in quince slices, the latter was also found that unlike the other mentioned products the shear strength decreased and the color, although changed, is not considered unpleasant (Elmizadeh et al., 2018).

Current Limitations and Future Guidelines

Although electrohydrodynamics can offer several benefits in the context of food and bioprocessing, its application in the drying of food materials is relatively limited, only because the approach remains underexplored. About 379 publications on the applications of electrohydrodynamics in food processing have been reported from 1990 to 2020. However, no detailed information is available on commercial applications of EHD dryers.

EHD is a complex phenomenon involving electric field applicability with the convective flow and ionic wind. This scenario increases the difficulty of coupling electrostatic field interactions with heat, mass, and momentum transfers. In this regard, a solid understanding of the process and product variables attributed to EHD is critical to understanding the industrial relevance and commercialization of this novel drying technology (Anukiruthika et al., 2020). One of the constraints is by applying a strong electric field through a dielectric barrier, does not increase the drying rate or efficiency of EHD drying (Martynenko et al., 2021). The effects of environmental factors, such as airflow, temperature, and relative humidity, on EHD drying efficiency, are crucial for the future scale-up of EHD technology. It appears that the application of elevated temperatures could be beneficial only under diffusion-limited drying conditions. The transition from constant drying rate to diffusion-limited drying changes the efficiency of EHD considerably. Therefore, further optimization of EHD drying should consider drying kinetics and material properties, as well as control the temperature regime at the critical moisture content (Martynenko and Misra, 2021).

After an analysis, the authors suggest the optimization of the EHD design, which can reduce energy consumption in certain parts of the process and increase its efficiency. The combination of the technique with traditional and non-thermal methods is proposed to reach a wide range of agro-industrial products, optimizing the performance of the drying speed, time, temperature, physicochemical properties, allowing to highlight the organoleptic properties of the products.


The classic texts and types of drying review, although they mention emerging drying techniques such as infrared drying, microwave drying, and others, are found little in the literature, especially at the level of innovation, industrial application, and enterprise, EHD drying is in pure basic research, basic applied, experimental development-oriented, prototype stage at the development level. EHD drying in its growth boom will enter the quest for commercial implementation, because of its great potential as an efficient and cost-effective alternative to current drying methods. Classical drying technologies will continue to play an important role in the manufacture of agro-industrial products as long as these technologies remain viable.

The mathematical models applied in EHD drying are iterative, these models are based on the classical drying under continuous and continuous conditions, adding variables to the modeling such as the use of electric fields, diffusion, electric voltage, etc. For the application of the mathematical models, speed, humidity, temperature, time, among other process parameters, are taken into account, generating drying curves, drying kinetics, and thus determining the properties of the process.

Throughout history, there have been multiple conventional drying methods e.g., sun drying, hot air drying, different types of ovens, etc. and they have been widely used on cereals and some fruits; unlike these types of drying, EHD is much more versatile and does not only cover products such as cereals, fruits, and vegetables but also on vegetables such as carrots, mushrooms, potatoes or even on animals such as sea cucumber whose worldwide consumption continues to grow.

The development of new emerging drying technologies such as EHD drying is evolving in the search for solutions to the limitations generated by current drying technologies. Developing sustainable drying with a significant reduction in the environmental footprint, being at the global forefront in the trend of sustainability with the reduction in drying times, savings in energy consumption Kw/h, and maintaining a good quality of products, contributing to the improvement of health and wellness.

Data Availability Statement

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.

Author Contributions

All the authors have made contributions in the construction of this paper.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher's Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


We thank the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana for providing the necessary databases during the construction of the article for the information search.


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Keywords: electrohydrodynamic, drying, food, agroindustry, trends, mathematical models, applications

Citation: Ciprian Foronda KD, Gafaro Garcés DC, Restrepo Rendón L, Mendoza Alvites YY, Ricardo Sagra JP, Orozco Mendoza GL and Zartha Sossa JW (2022) Electrohydrodynamic Drying in Agribusiness: Literature Review. Front. Sustain. Food Syst. 5:761297. doi: 10.3389/fsufs.2021.761297

Received: 19 August 2021; Accepted: 29 November 2021;
Published: 13 January 2022.

Edited by:

Liliana Londono Hernandez, National Open and Distance University, Colombia

Reviewed by:

Seyed-Hassan Miraei Ashtiani, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
Fakhreddin Salehi, Bu-Ali Sina University, Iran

Copyright © 2022 Ciprian Foronda, Gafaro Garcés, Restrepo Rendón, Mendoza Alvites, Ricardo Sagra, Orozco Mendoza and Zartha Sossa. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Jhon Wilder Zartha Sossa,