Skip to main content


Front. Robot. AI
Sec. Human-Robot Interaction
Volume 11 - 2024 | doi: 10.3389/frobt.2024.1399012
This article is part of the Research Topic Perceiving, Generating, and Interpreting Affect in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) View all 3 articles

Enhancing Emotional Expression in Cat-like Robots: Strategies for Utilizing Tail Movements with Human-like Gazes

Provisionally accepted
Xinxiang Wang Xinxiang Wang Yiming Yang Yiming Yang Zihan Li Zihan Li Songyang Wang Songyang Wang Yibo Peng Yibo Peng Changzeng Fu Changzeng Fu *
  • Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China

The final, formatted version of the article will be published soon.

    In recent years, there has been a significant growth in research on emotion expression in the field of human-robot interaction. In the process of human-robot interaction, the effect of the robot's emotional expression determines the user's experience and acceptance. Gaze is widely accepted as an important media to express emotions in human-human interaction. But it has been found that users have difficulty in effectively recognizing emotions such as happiness and anger expressed by animaloid robots that use eye contact individually. In addition, in real interaction, effective nonverbal expression includes not only eye contact but also physical expression. However, current animaloid social robots consider human-like eyes as the main emotion expression pathway, which results in a dysfunctional robot appearance and behavioral approach, affecting the quality of emotional expression. Based on retaining the effectiveness of eyes for emotional communication, we added a mechanical tail as a physical expression to enhance the robot's emotional expression in concert with the eyes. The results show that the collaboration between the mechanical tail and the bionic eye enhances emotional expression in all four emotions. Further more, we found that the mechanical tail can enhance the expression of specific emotions with different parameters. The above study is conducive to enhancing the robot's emotional expression ability in human-robot interaction and improving the user's interaction experience.

    Keywords: human-robot interaction, emotional expression, bionic eye, Mechanical tail, User Experience, emotion recognition, Nonverbal Communication, cat-like robot

    Received: 11 Mar 2024; Accepted: 14 Jun 2024.

    Copyright: © 2024 Wang, Yang, Li, Wang, Peng and Fu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

    * Correspondence: Changzeng Fu, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110819, Liaoning Province, China

    Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.