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Front. Chem. | doi: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00258

A fluorescent sensor array based on heteroatomic macrocyclic fluorophores for the detection of polluting species in natural water samples

  • 1Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli studi di Cagliari, Italy
  • 2Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy
  • 3Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo, Italy
  • 4Department of Electronic Engineering, Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy
  • 5Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Italy

The development of a novel all-solid-state optical sensor array based on heteroatomic macrocyclic fluorophores (diaza-crown ether, metallocorrole and pyridinophans) for the photographic analysis of liquid media, is presented. The sensitivity of the new optical system toward a number of different species (cations: Li+, K+, Na+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+,Pb2+ and anions: NO2, NO3, Cl, Br, HCO3) was evaluated both in single selective sensor mode and in multisensory arrangement. The satisfactory PLS1 regression models between sensor array optical response and analyte concentration were obtained for Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and NO2 ions in all the range of tested concentrations. Among these species the highest attention was focused onto detection of cadmium and nitrite ions, for which the detection limits, DL, estimated by 3σ method were found 0.0013 mg/L and 0.21 mg/L respectively, and these values are lower than the corresponding WHO guideline values of 0.003 mg/L (Cd2+) and 2 mg/L (NO2). The suitability of the developed sensors implemented with familiar devices for signal acquisition (Light Emitting Diode, LED, as light source and a digital camera as a signal detector), and chemometric methods for data treatment to perform fast and low-cost monitoring of species under interest, in real samples of environmental importance, is demonstrated.

Keywords: Macrocylic fluorophore, optical sensor, Water Pollutants, Cadmium, nitrite

Received: 17 Mar 2018; Accepted: 08 Jun 2018.

Edited by:

Nicole J. Jaffrezic-Renault, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, France

Reviewed by:

Eduardo Pinilla-Gil, Universidad de Extremadura, Spain
Kohji Mitsubayashi, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan  

Copyright: © 2018 Lippolis, Lvova, Garau, Giorgi, Fusi, Coroleo, Paolesse, Di Natale, Lombardo, Prodi and Zaccheroni. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Vito Lippolis, Università degli studi di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, S.S. 554 Bivio per Sestu, Monserrato, Cagliari, 09042, Italy, lippolis@unica.it