Original Research ARTICLE
Antimicrobial Activity of Naturally Occurring Phenols and Derivatives against Biofilm and Planktonic Bacteria
- 1Montana State University, United States
Biofilm-forming bacteria present formidable challenges across diverse settings, and there is a need for new antimicrobial agents that are both environmentally acceptable and relatively potent against microorganisms in the biofilm state. The antimicrobial activity of three naturally occurring, low molecular weight, phenols and their derivatives were evaluated against planktonic and biofilm Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The structure activity relationships of eugenol, thymol, carvacrol and their corresponding 2- and 4-allyl, 2-methallyl, and 2- and 4-n-propyl derivatives were evaluated. Allyl derivatives showed a consistent increased potency with both killing and inhibiting planktonic cells but they exhibited a decrease in potency against biofilms. This result underscores the importance of using biofilm assays to develop structure-activity relationships when the end target is biofilm.
Keywords: Biofilm, Anti-biofilm, antimicrobial, essential oils, Naturally occurring phenols, Structure-acitivity relationship
Received: 11 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 11 Sep 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Walsh, Livinghouse, Goeres, Mettler and Stewart. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Phil S. Stewart, Montana State University, Bozeman, United States, email@example.com