Advances in MS based stratigies for Probing Ligand-Target Interactions: Focus on Soft Ionization Mass Spectrometric Techniques
- 1Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden (CAS), China
- 2State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, China
- 3State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau
The non-covalent interactions between small drug molecules and disease-related proteins (ligand-target interactions) mediate various pharmacological processes in the treatment of different diseases. The development of the analytical methods to assess those interactions, including binding sites, binding energies, stoichiometry and association-dissociation constants, could assist in clarifying the mechanisms of action, precise treatment of targeted diseases as well as the targeted drug discovery. For the last decades, mass spectrometry (MS) has been recognized as a powerful tool to study the non-covalent interactions of the ligand-target complexes with the characteristics of high sensitivity, high-resolution, and high-throughput. Soft ionization mass spectrometry, especially the electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), could achieve the complete transformation of the target analytes into the gas phase, and subsequent detection of the small drug molecules and disease-related protein complexes, and has exerted great advantages for studying the drug ligands-protein targets interactions, even in case of identifying active components as drug ligands from crude extracts of medicinal plants. Despite of other analytical techniques for this purpose, such as the NMR and X-ray crystallography, this review highlights the principles, research hotspots and recent applications of the soft ionization mass spectrometry and its hyphenated techniques, including hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS), chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (CX-MS) and ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry (IMS-MS), in the study of the non-covalent interactions between small drug molecules and disease-related proteins.
Keywords: Ligand-target interactions, Mass Spectrometry, Soft ionization, Drug Discovery, ESI-MS, MALDI-MS
Received: 24 Jul 2019;
Accepted: 08 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Chen, Fan, sun, Wu, Li and Guo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Mingquan Guo, Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden (CAS), Wuhan, 430074, Hubei Province, China, firstname.lastname@example.org