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Front. Earth Sci. | doi: 10.3389/feart.2019.00066

Internal Structures and Growth Style of a Quaternary Subaerial Rhyodacite Cryptodome at Ogariyama, Usu Volcano, Hokkaido, Japan

  • 1Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan
  • 2Geological Survey of Japan (AIST), Japan

This paper describes internal structures of a Quaternary subaerial rhyodacite cryptodome at Usu volcano, Japan, and examines the textural differences between subaerial and subaqueous cryptodomes. Ogariyama dome is one of the youngest subaerial cryptodomes in the world (<0.4 ka). The cross-section of this young cryptodome is visible because a vertical fault formed during the 1977–1978 eruption and cut through the center of the cryptodome, exposing its interior. The morphology of the cryptodome is scalene triangular in shape, with rounded corners in cross-section, and it is 150 m across and 80 m high. The internal structure of the dome is concentrically zoned, with a massive core, jointed rim, and brecciated border, all of which are composed of uniform, feldspar-phyric rhyodacite (SiO2 = 71–72 wt.%). The massive core (130 m across) consists of coherent rhyodacite that has indistinct, large-scale flow banding and rectangular joints that are spaced 50–200 cm apart. The jointed rim (8–12 m wide) surrounds the massive core and consists of coherent rhyodacite that is characterized by distinct rectangular joints that are 30–80 cm apart and radiate outward. The outermost brecciated border (7–10 m wide) comprises monolithological breccia, consisting of angular rhyodacite clasts (5–30 cm across) and a cogenetic matrix. These internal structures suggest that Ogariyama dome was formed by endogenous growth, involving continuous magma supply during a single intrusive event and simple expansion from its interior. The massive core formed by slow cooling of homogeneous rhyodacite magma. The jointed rim formed by fracturing of solidifying rhyodacite magma in response to cooling–contraction and dynamic stress driven by continued movement of the less viscous core. The brecciated border formed by fragmentation of the solidified rim of the dome in response to dynamic stress. The growth style of Ogariyama dome closely resembles that of subaqueous cryptodomes. However, the morphology and internal structures of Ogariyama dome differ from those of subaqueous cryptodomes, given its asymmetric morphology and absence of radial columnar joints and large-scale flow banding. These differences might reflect the well-consolidated and non-homogeneous physical properties of host sediment, slow cooling rate, and high viscosity of the Ogariyama dome.

Keywords: Cryptodome, Subaerial, Rhyodacite, Internal structure, endogenous growth

Received: 30 Jul 2018; Accepted: 14 Mar 2019.

Edited by:

Guido Giordano, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Italy

Reviewed by:

Thomas R. Walter, German Research Centre for Geosciences, Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, Germany
Claudio A. Tranne, University of Bologna, Italy  

Copyright: © 2019 Goto and Tomiya. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence:
Dr. Yoshihiko Goto, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Japan, ygoto@mmm.muroran-it.ac.jp
Dr. Akihiko Tomiya, Geological Survey of Japan (AIST), Tsukuba, 305-8560, Ibaraki, Japan, a.tomiya@aist.go.jp