Original Research ARTICLE
Long-distance runners and sprinters show different performance monitoring – An event-related potential study
- 1Department of Physical Education, Tokyo Women's College of Physical Education, Japan
- 2Department of Psychology, Brock University, Canada
- 3Waseda University, Japan
Previous findings have reported that track and field athletes may monitor and utilize internal information, including anxiety level, suggesting that the ability to inwardly monitor one’s own functioning and utilize anxiety are required to achieve superior performance. Performance monitoring has been investigated using two event-related potential (ERP) components; the error (-related) negativity (Ne/ERN) and error positivity (Pe). It is unknown whether performance monitoring differs among various types of athletes. It has also been reported that Ne/ERN amplitude is increased in individuals who are more anxious and the prevalence and effect of anxiety also differs among various types of athletes. In this study, we recorded both Ne/ERN and Pe from long-distance runners (n = 24) and sprinters (n = 24) while they were performing a spatial Stroop task under motivation and no motivation conditions. We also collected scores on the Sports Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT). Mean error rate on incongruent trials was lower in the motivation condition than in the no motivation condition. There was neither group effect, nor condition effect found in Ne/ERN amplitude. However, for the long-distance runners, Pe amplitude was larger in the motivation condition than in the no motivation condition. We also investigated the relationships between Ne/ERNs and individual differences in performance anxiety using the SCAT. A multiple linear regression analysis in the motivation condition revealed an interaction between type of runner and SCAT scores, indicating that long-distance runners with higher SCAT scores showed larger Ne/ERN amplitudes whereas the sprinters with high SCAT scores tended to exhibit smaller Ne/ERN amplitudes. Our findings provide further evidence that performance monitoring differs across various types of athletes.
Keywords: Performance monitoring, error-related negativity, error positivity, sports competitive anxiety test, Long-distance runner, Sprinter
Received: 28 Sep 2017;
Accepted: 16 Apr 2018.
Edited by:Sven Hoffmann, German Sport University Cologne, Germany
Reviewed by:Ellen De Bruijn, Leiden University, Netherlands
Michael Falkenstein, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (LG), Germany
Copyright: © 2018 Maruo, Murphy and Masaki. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: PhD. Hiroaki Masaki, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, firstname.lastname@example.org