MINI REVIEW article
Sec. Addictive Disorders
Excessive Smartphone Use Is Associated With Health Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults
- Department of Behavioral Sciences, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel
Background and Aims: This present paper will review the existing evidence on the effects of excessive smartphone use on physical and mental health.
Results: Comorbidity with depression, anxiety, OCD, ADHD and alcohol use disorder. Excessive smartphone use is associated with difficulties in cognitive-emotion regulation, impulsivity, impaired cognitive function, addiction to social networking, shyness and low self-esteem. Medical problems include sleep problems, reduced physical fitness, unhealthy eating habits, pain and migraines, reduced cognitive control and changes in the brain's gray matter volume.
In Conclusion: Excessive smartphone use is associated with psychiatric, cognitive, emotional, medical and brain changes that should be considered by health and education professionals.
Excessive Smartphone Use in Young Adults
The effects of excessive use of computer screens and smartphones are raising serious concerns among health and educational authorities due to negative effects of such use in children and adolescents. Recent reviews have argued that the evidence supporting excessive smartphone use as an addictive behavior is scarce. In particular, Billieux (1) have argued that there is insufficient evidence for behavioral and neurobiological similarities between excessive smartphone use other types of addictive behaviors. Panova and Carbonell (2) also argued that there is insufficient evidence to support for the diagnosis of smartphone addiction and finally Montag et al. (3) have argued that excessive smartphone use is a form of Internet Use Disorder. The smartphones are being used for various purposes such as gaming, Social Network Services (SNS), watching video clips (YouTube). Therefore, excessive use of smartphones may have difference characteristics according to the type of smartphone use. This present paper will review the existing evidence on excessive smartphone use, and it will discuss its similarities with and differences from Internet addiction.
A PubMed Central® and Web of Science search engines have been used with the terms: “excessive smartphone use” and “smartphone addiction” until February 2021 that resulted in 84 research studies in English language.
Predictors of Excessive Smartphone-Use
The main factors predicting excessive smartphone use were being female, preoccupation, conflict, and use for ubiquitous trait whereas the protective factor was use for learning (4). Excessive use of smartphones was correlated with impairment in the function of the family and relationship with friends, impulsiveness, and low self-esteem in South Korean adolescents (5). Finally, smartphone gaming was associated with excessive smartphone use among adolescents (6).
Sensation Seeking and Boredom
Turgeman et al. (7) have reported an interaction between high sensation seeking and abstinence whereby abstinence for 1.5 h increased excessive smartphone use ratings in high sensation seeking students. This may be explained by boredom, avoidance of uncomfortable situations and the need for entertainment (8–12). Lepp et al. (13) have found an association between excessive smartphone use and living sedentary life or being an “active couch potato. “Ben-Yehuda et al. (14) have investigated the effects of involvement and of interest in three conditions: state of boredom, passive activity and active activity in counter-balanced order in University students. Excessive smartphone use was not influenced by any interest or involvement in the lecture, indicating a compulsive behavior. Finally, Li et al. (15) have demonstrated that individuals with an external locus of control had less control over their smartphone use and therefore could have more negative effects such as poor sleep quality, lower academic achievements, and lower ratings of well-being.
Insecure Attachment, Poor Cognitive-Emotional Regulation and Communication Problems
Insecure attachment positively correlated with problematic smartphone use in students with unhealthy family function but not with mother-infant bonding or maternal mental health (16). Eichenberg et al. (17) showed an association between excessive smartphone use and an insecure attachment style in Problematic adolescent users. A following study reported high scores in maladaptive Cognitive-emotion regulation (CER) strategies such as self-blame, blaming of others ruminating and catastrophizing thoughts (18). Experiential avoidance (i.e., attempts to avoid thoughts, feelings, memories and physical sensations) has been associated with excessive smartphone use and social networks (19). Childhood emotional maltreatment correlated with problematic smartphone use in adolescents, and it was mediated by body image difficulties, depression, and social anxiety (20). Emotion regulation difficulties, unregulated eating, restrained eating, food addiction, and higher percent body fat were associated with excessive smartphone use among adolescents (21). Mahapatra (22) showed a strong association between both lack of self-regulation and loneliness on problematic smartphone use among adolescents that ultimately resulted in family, interpersonal conflicts, and poor academic performance. Among students, problematic smartphone users have shown high measures of worry and anger (23) whereas excessive reassurance seeking behavior mediated the association between rumination and problematic smartphone use (24). Poor communication skills were shown in Medical students who preferred to communicate emotions through texting rather than verbal communication (25) and they correlated with excessive smartphone use (26). Excessive use of the smartphone has negative impacts on people's lives by reducing face-to-face interactions, and increasing loneliness (27).
Impaired Cognitive Function
Problems in inhibitory control mechanisms in excessive smartphone users were reported (28). They have reported that while performing on the Go/NoGo task excessive smartphone users showed a negative N2 event-related potentials (ERPs) component showing reduced inhibitory control. There is further evidence for impaired attention, reduced numerical processing capacity, increased impulsivity, hyperactivity and negative social concern in heavy smartphone users (29). Heavy smartphone users showed. Inattention problems correlated with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) evoked potentials in the right prefrontal cortex. Wegmann et al. (30) have found no correlations between problematic social networks use and executive function and inhibitory control measured by the Go/NoGo task. However, regression analyses showed that increased problematic social networks use is associated with higher impulsivity, especially if executive functions or specific inhibitory control were impaired.
Social Media Use and Personality
Problematic social media use has been shown to be associated with “fear of missing out” (FOMO) (31, 32). FOMO mediated relations between both fear of negative and positive evaluation with both problematic and social smartphone use. Withdrawal and FOMO ratings were higher among participants with 72 h restricted access to smartphones compared with those without (33). There was a correlation between Social communication use and excessive use of smartphones. FOMO mediated the relationships between anxiety and depression with problematic smartphone use (24, 34). Excessive smartphone use has been associated with social comparisons on social networking sites and perceived stress (35). Personality factors such as conscientiousness, openness, emotional stability and neuroticism have been associated with problematic smartphone use (36, 37) whereas impulsivity, excessive reassurance seeking, but not extraversion related to problematic smartphone use in other studies (38, 39).
Comorbidity With Anxiety, Depression OCD, ADHD and Alcohol Use Disorder
There are several studies on the comorbidity of excessive smartphone use and mental disorders and its association with sleep problems, reduced fitness and pain. Excessive smartphone use has been associated with depression, anxiety (40, 41) and social anxiety (7, 42–44) shyness and low self-esteem (5–12, 12–47) low psychological well-being (48) and low mental well-being (49). Excessive reassurance seeking correlated with problematic smartphone use severity, and its combination with rumination mediated the relationship between depression and anxiety severity with problematic smartphone use (50). Anxiety during the COVID-19 epidemic correlated with severity of problematic smartphone use, depression and generalized anxiety (51).
Early problematic smartphone use was found as a significant predictor of depression in a three-year longitudinal study from adolescence to emerging adulthood (52). Excessive mobile use was associated with high levels of depressive moods, with loneliness serving as a moderator of this mediation particularly in men (53). Depression and anxiety were significantly associated with both excessive smartphone use (54). Depressive mood and suicidal ideation were associated with social network smartphone use (55). Interestingly, the time spent in excessive smartphone use has predicted the level of stress in users who hardly used the smartphone for self-disclosure whereas those who engaged in disclosure of their emotions and problems online, this reduced their emotional problems (56). Problematic smartphone use has been associated with psychological distress and emotion dysregulation and emotion dysregulation was shown as a mediator in the relation between psychological distress and problematic smartphone use (57). Excessive smartphone use has been also associated with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder symptoms (58) and ADHD (59, 60).
History of alcoholism and father's education level explained 26% of the variance of problematic smartphone use (60). In addition, alcohol use disorder, impulsivity (Barratt scale and ADHD) and elevated occurrence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression were associated with excessive smartphone use (61). Finally, the relationship between PTSD severity and problematic smartphone use was mediated by negative urgency (a component of impulsivity) (62).
Medical Complications- Sleep, Physical Fitness, Eyesight, Migraine and Pain
Excessive smartphone use was associated with reduced sleep time and sleep quality in adolescents (63). The association between media use in bed before sleep and depression was mediated by sleep disturbance (64, 65). Furthermore, there was an association between excessive screen time and problems in sleep onset (66), insufficient sleep (67), and insomnia (68). Long-term problematic mobile use predicted new incidences of sleep disturbances and mental distress, which was ameliorated by its discontinuation (69). Excessive mobile phone use correlated with disturbed sleep pattern and quality (70) Excessive smartphone use was associated with poorer sleep quality and higher perceived stress (71, 72), lowered physical activity, lower muscle mass and higher fat mass (73). Other medical conditions include acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) (74) increased ocular symptoms (75), headache complaints (76, 77) and headache duration and frequency in migraine patients (78). Young chronic neck pain patients with overuse of smartphones had higher Cervical Disc Degeneration (79). Finally, excessive smartphone users had higher median nerve Cross sectional areas (CSA's) in their dominant hands (80).
A recent study has used diffusion MRI for assessment of white matter structural connectivity, and it has shown a positive association between activity in the right amygdala and excessive smartphone use in adolescents (81). Excessive smartphone users have shown impairment in cognitive control during emotional processing of angry faces and social interaction in fMRI (82). They also showed reduced functional connectivity in regions related to cognitive control of emotional stimuli including reward (83). Reduced Gray Matter Volume (GMV) was shown in problematic smartphone users and negative correlations between GMV in the right lateral Orbito Frontal Cortex (OFC) and measures of smartphone addiction (84). Lower activity in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and a negative correlation between individuals with excessive smartphone use and both ACC GMV and activity was reported (85). Furthermore, the strength of the resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) between several brain regions in fMRI positively correlated with smartphone time in bed (86). Finally, exposure to smartphone pictures in fMRI was associated with activation of brain regions associated with drug addiction and correlations of these regions with smartphone addiction scores were reported (87).
Supplementary Table 1 shows details of the studies reviewed in this paper.
There have been several reviews in recent years that have discussed the issue whether excessive smartphone use is considered a behavioral addiction (1, 2). In addition, studies have examined whether there are differences between excessive smartphone use and Internet use disorder (IUD). Montag et al. (3) have proposed that excessive smartphone use is essentially a type of IUD. In this sense, IUD should be divided into two types of use: a mobile use and a non-mobile use. They have suggested that there is a specific use of IUD of a particular content and a generalized IUD where several channels are overused. The rationale for this division is that motivation, cognitive and affective factors predispose individuals to prefer a specific application and type of device.
However, there is little empirical evidence in support of these assumptions (88, 89). Although there may be small differences between some mechanisms and risk factors underlying online behavioral addictions, such as pornography use, gaming disorder and social network use, the resemblance between them is very strong (90). In addition, there are few studies that have examined whether specific cognitive and motivational mechanisms could lead to a preference of a specific type of device. Nevertheless, recent studies show that excessive use of the screens including, computer screens and smartphones is associated with serious mental problems and cognitive impairments (91, 92). Therefore, we argue that research should focus on the negative consequences of excessive smartphone use rather than on whether it should be considered as a behavioral addiction.
Recent studies show that excessive smartphone use is associated with problems of mental health and impaired psychological well-being. There is consistent evidence for comorbidity between excessive smartphone use and other psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, OCD, and ADHD similar to Internet addiction (93). In addition, excessive smartphone use is related to loneliness, stress, and other negative emotions (56, 94).
In addition to these psychological consequences, the excessive use of smartphones can potentially lead to impairments of cognitive functions. Such excessive use is related to impairments of specific attention domains (such as focused attention and divided attention), low inhibitory control, impaired working memory, reduced numerical processing capacity, and changes in social cognition. Since cognition and emotion are often intertwined it is not surprising that a common cognitive-emotional mechanism related to loss of control would be associated with impulsiveness, impairment in communication and relationship with friends and family.
Recent studies have also shown an association between an excessive use of smartphones and abnormal activity of regions in the prefrontal cortex and in the networks that connect to these regions (29, 82). Novel findings show reduced lateral orbitofrontal gray matter, especially in social networking platforms overuse and that prolonged bedtime smartphone use has been associated with altered insula-centered functional connectivity. Gray matter volume reduction was observed also in the anterior cingulate similar to Internet and gaming disorder (95). Excessive smartphone use has also been associated with reduced cognitive control during the emotional processing in the brain.
The effects of excessive use of the media including TV, computer screens and smartphones is raising serious concerns among health and educational authorities due to deleterious effects of such use in children and adolescents. A recent study has shown an association between increased screen-based media use and lower microstructural integrity of brain white matter tracts that are associated with language and literacy skills in 5-year-old pre- school children, (96). Furthermore, a large study of 4,277 adolescents has shown a negative correlation between screen media activity and cortical thickness in fMRI implying premature aging of the brain (97). Finally, young adults and heavy media “multi-taskers” are more susceptible to interference from irrelevant environmental stimuli and from irrelevant representations in memory, and they performed worse on a task-switching ability (98). The findings so far that span from early childhood to adolescents, rapidly growing societal phenomena, emphasize the need to assess the effects of media screens on cognitive function and the brain in children, adolescents and young adults.
Excessive smartphone use shares underlying mechanisms with other addictive behaviors such as gambling disorder, in particular, reduced cognitive control and impaired activity in the prefrontal cortex which affects decision-making and emotional processing (99). Addictions in adolescents share the tendency to experience poor emotional regulation, impulsivity and impaired cognitive control and reduced ability to experience pleasure in everyday life (100).
The major limitations in studies of excessive smartphone use and Internet addiction are that they are mainly cross-sectional studies without baseline measures and rely on associations between structural and functional changes in the brain and subjective measures and no proof of a causal role in the development of the adolescent or adult brain. Finally, the review is non-systematic and it has excluded non-English language articles.
The excessive use of the smartphone has been associated with impaired cognitive functions and mental health problems. There are unique findings on the association between using smartphones, need of constant stimulation, deficits in everyday cognitive functioning and brain changes which should send alarm signals to clinicians and educators in the modern world.
All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.669042/full#supplementary-material
1. Billieux J, Maurage P, Lopez-Fernandez O, Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD. Can disordered mobile phone use be considered a behavioral addiction? An update on current evidence and a comprehensive model for future research. Curr Addict Reports. (2015) 2:156–62. doi: 10.1007/s40429-015-0054-y
3. Montag C, Wegmann E, Sariyska R, Demetrovics Z, Brand M. How to overcome taxonomical problems in the study of internet use disorders and what to do with “smartphone addiction”? J Behav Addict. (2019) 31:1–7. doi: 10.1556/2006.8.2019.59
7. Turgeman L, Hefner I, Bazon M, Yehoshua O, Weinstein A. Studies on the relationship between social anxiety and excessive smartphone use and on the effects of abstinence and sensation seeking on excessive smartphone use. Int J Environ Res Public Health. (2020) 17:1262. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17041262
9. Leung L, Konijn EA, Tanis MA, Utz S, Linden A. Leisure boredom, sensation seeking, self-esteem, addiction symptoms and patterns of mobile phone use. In: Konijn EA, Tanis US, Barnes MSB, editors. Mediated Interpersonal Communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (2007).
10. Lepp A, Barkley JE, Karpinski AC. The relationship between cell phone use, academic performance, anxiety, and satisfaction with Life in college students. Comput Hum Behav. (2014) 31:343–50. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2013.10.049
12. Yildiz Durak H. Investigation of nomophobia and smartphone addiction predictors among adolescents in Turkey: demographic variables and academic performance. Soc Sci J. (2019) 56:492–517. doi: 10.1016/j.soscij.2018.09.003
13. Lepp A, Barkley JE. Cell phone use predicts being an “active couch potato”: results from a cross-sectional survey of sufficiently active college students. Digit Heal. (2019) 5:1–8. doi: 10.1177/2055207619844870
14. Ben-Yehuda L, Greenberg L, Weinstein A. Internet addiction by using the smartphone-relationships between internet addiction, frequency of smartphone use and the state of mind of male and female students. J Reward Defic Syndr Addict Sci. (2016) 2:22–7. doi: 10.17756/jrdsas.2016-024
15. Li J, Lepp A, Barkley JE. Locus of control and cell phone use: implications for sleep quality, academic performance, subjective well-being. Comput Human Behav. (2015) 52:450–7. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.06.021
16. Ali RA, Alnuaimi KM, Al-Jarrah IA. Examining the associations between smartphone use and mother–infant bonding and family functioning: a survey design. Nurs Heal Sci. (2020) 22:235–42. doi: 10.1111/nhs.12684
18. Extremera N, Quintana-Orts C, Sánchez-álvarez N, Rey L. The role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on problematic smartphone use: comparison between problematic and non-problematic adolescent users. Int J Environ Res Public Health. (2019) 16:3142. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16173142
20. Emirtekin E, Balta S, Sural I, Kircaburun K, Griffiths MD, Billieux J. The role of childhood emotional maltreatment and body image dissatisfaction in problematic smartphone use among adolescents. Psychiatry Res. (2019) 271:634–9. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.059
21. Domoff SE, Sutherland EQ, Yokum S, Gearhardt AN. Adolescents' addictive phone use: associations with eating behaviors and adiposity. Int J Environ Res Public Health. (2020) 17:2861. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17082861
23. Elhai JD, Rozgonjuk D, Yildirim C, Alghraibeh AM, Alafnan AA. Worry and anger are associated with latent classes of problematic smartphone use severity among college students. J Affect Disord. (2019) 246:209–16. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.12.047
24. Elhai JD, Gallinari EF, Rozgonjuk D, Yang H. Depression, anxiety and fear of missing out as correlates of social, non-social and problematic smartphone use. Addict Behav. (2020) 105:106335. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106335
26. Celikkalp U, Bilgic S, Temel M, Varol G. The smartphone addiction levels and the association with communication skills in nursing and medical school students. J Nurs Res. (2020) 28:e93. doi: 10.1097/jnr.0000000000000370
28. Chen J, Liang Y, Mai C, Zhong X, Qu C. General deficit in inhibitory control of excessive smartphone users: evidence from an event-related potential study. Front Psychol. (2016) 7:511. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00511
29. Hadar A, Hadas I, Lazarovits A, Alyagon U, Eliraz D, Zangen A. Answering the missed call: initial exploration of cognitive and electrophysiological changes associated with smartphone use and abuse. PLoS ONE. (2017) 12:e0180094. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180094
30. Wegmann E, Müller SM, Turel O, Brand M. Interactions of impulsivity, general executive functions, and specific inhibitory control explain symptoms of social-networks-use disorder: an experimental study. Sci Rep. (2020) 10:3866. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-60819-4
31. Gugushvili N, Täht K, Rozgonjuk D, Raudlam M, Ruiter R, Verduyn P. Two dimensions of problematic smartphone use mediate the relationship between fear of missing out and emotional well-being. Cyberpsychology. (2020) 14:3. doi: 10.5817/CP2020-2-3
32. Wolniewicz CA, Tiamiyu MF, Weeks JW, Elhai JD. Problematic smartphone use and relations with negative affect, fear of missing out, and fear of negative and positive evaluation. Psychiatry Res. (2018) 262:618–23. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.09.058
33. Eide TA, Aarestad SH, Andreassen CS, Bilder RM, Pallesen S. Smartphone restriction and its effect on subjective withdrawal related scores. Front Psychol. (2018) 9:1444. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01444
34. Sha P, Sariyska R, Riedl R, Lachmann B, Montag C. Linking internet communication and smartphone use disorder by taking a closer look at the Facebook and WhatsApp applications. Addict Behav Reports. (2019) 9:100148. doi: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.100148
35. He D, Shen X, Liu QQ. The relationship between upward social comparison on SNSs and excessive smartphone use: a moderated mediation analysis. Child Youth Serv Rev. (2020) 116:105232. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105232
37. Hussain Z, Griffiths MD, Sheffield D. An investigation into problematic smartphone use: the role of narcissism, anxiety, personality factors. J Behav Addict. (2017) 6:378–86. doi: 10.1556/2006.6.2017.052
38. Mitchell L, Hussain Z. Predictors of problematic smartphone use: an examination of the integrative pathways model and the role of age, gender, impulsiveness, excessive reassurance seeking, extraversion, and depression. Behav Sci. (2018) 8:74. doi: 10.3390/bs8080074
40. Demirci K, Akgönül M, Akpinar A. Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in University students. J Behav Addict. (2015) 4:85–92. doi: 10.1556/2006.4.2015.010
41. Elhai JD, Levine JC, O'Brien KD, Armour C. Distress tolerance and mindfulness mediate relations between depression and anxiety sensitivity with problematic smartphone use. Comput Human Behav. (2018) 84:477–84. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.03.026
42. Elhai JD, Tiamiyu M, Weeks J. Depression and social anxiety in relation to problematic smartphone use: the prominent role of rumination. Internet Res. (2018) 28:315–32. doi: 10.1108/IntR-01-2017-0019
43. Kim H, Cho MK, Ko H, Yoo JE, Song YM. Association between smartphone usage and mental health in South Korean adolescents: the 2017 Korea Youth Risk behavior web-based survey. Korean J Fam Med. (2020) 41:98–104. doi: 10.4082/kjfm.18.0108
44. Enez Darcin A, Kose S, Noyan CO, Nurmedov S, Yilmaz O, Dilbaz N. Smartphone addiction and its relationship with social anxiety and loneliness. Behav Inf Technol. (2016) 35:520–5. doi: 10.1080/0144929X.2016.1158319
47. Kim YJ, Jang HM, Lee Y, Lee D, Kim DJ. Effects of internet and smartphone addictions on depression and anxiety based on propensity score matching analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. (2018) 15:859. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050859
48. Tangmunkongvorakul A, Musumari PM, Thongpibul K, Srithanaviboonchai K, Techasrivichien T, Suguimoto SP, et al. Association of excessive smartphone use with psychological well-being among University students in Chiang Mai, Thailand. PLoS ONE. (2019) 14:e0210294. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210294
49. Bhatt S, Gaur A. Psychological risk factors associated with internet and smartphone addiction among students of an Indian dental institute. Indian J Public Health. (2019) 63:313–7. doi: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_330_18
50. Elhai JD, Rozgonjuk D, Alghraibeh AM, Levine JC, Alafnan AA, Aldraiweesh AA, et al. Excessive reassurance seeking mediates relations between rumination and problematic smartphone use. Bull Menninger Clin. (2020) 84:137–55. doi: 10.1521/bumc_2020_84_07
51. Elhai JD, Yang H, McKay D, Asmundson GJ. COVID-19 anxiety symptoms associated with problematic smartphone use severity in Chinese adults. J Affect Disord. (2020) 274:576–82. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.05.080
52. Coyne SM, Stockdale L, Summers K. Problematic cell phone use, depression, anxiety, and self-regulation: evidence from a three year longitudinal study from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Comput Human Behav. (2019) 96:78–84. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2019.02.014
53. Ivanova A, Gorbaniuk O, Błachnio A, Przepiórka A, Mraka N, Polishchuk V, et al. Mobile phone addiction, phubbing, and depression among men and women: a moderated mediation analysis. Psychiatr. (2020) 91:655–68. doi: 10.1007/s11126-020-09723-8
54. Jeong B, Lee JY, Kim BM, Park E, Kwon JG, Kim DJ, et al. Associations of personality and clinical characteristics with excessive Internet and smartphone use in adolescents: a structural equation modeling approach. Addict Behav. (2020) 110:106485. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106485
55. Jinhee L, Joung-Sook A, Seongho M, Min-Hyuk K. Psychological characteristics and addiction propensity according to content type of smartphone use. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. (2020) 17:2292;. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17072292
56. Karsay K, Schmuck D, Matthes J, Stevic A. Longitudinal effects of excessive smartphone use on stress and loneliness: the moderating role of self-disclosure. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. (2019) 22:706–13. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2019.0255
57. Squires LR, Hollett KB, Hesson J, Harris N. Psychological distress, emotion dysregulation, and coping behaviour: a theoretical perspective of problematic smartphone use. Int J Ment Health Addict. (2020). doi: 10.1007/s11469-020-00224-0
59. Kim SG, Park J, Kim HT, Pan Z, Lee Y, McIntyre RS. The relationship between smartphone addiction and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity in South Korean adolescents. Ann Gen Psychiatry. (2019) 18:1. doi: 10.1186/s12991-019-0224-8
60. Beison A, Rademacher DJ. Relationship between family history of alcohol addiction, parents' education level, and smartphone problem use scale scores. J Behav Addict. (2017) 6:84–91. doi: 10.1556/2006.6.2017.016
61. Grant JE, Lust K, Chamberlain SR. Problematic smartphone use associated with greater alcohol consumption, mental health issues, poorer academic performance, and impulsivity. J Behav Addict. (2019) 8:335–42. doi: 10.1556/2006.8.2019.32
63. Kim SY, Han S, Park EJ, Yoo HJ, Park D, Suh S, et al. The relationship between smartphone overuse and sleep in younger children: a prospective cohort study. J Clin Sleep Med. (2020) 16:1133–9. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.8446
64. Lemola S, Perkinson-Gloor N, Brand S, Dewald-Kaufmann JF, Grob A. Adolescents' electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age. J Youth Adolesc. (2015) 44:405–18. doi: 10.1007/s10964-014-0176-x
66. Ghekiere A, Van Cauwenberg J, Vandendriessche A, Inchley J, Gaspar de Matos M, Borraccino A, et al. Trends in sleeping difficulties among European adolescents: are these associated with physical inactivity and excessive screen time? Int J Public Health. (2019) 64:487–98. doi: 10.1007/s00038-018-1188-1
67. Twenge JM, Hisler GC, Krizan Z. Associations between screen time and sleep duration are primarily driven by portable electronic devices: evidence from a population-based study of U.S children ages 0-17. Sleep Med. (2019) 56:211–8. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2018.11.009
68. Tamura H, Nishida T, Tsuji A, Sakakibara H. Association between excessive use of mobile phone and insomnia and depression among Japanese adolescents. Int J Environ Res Public Health. (2017) 14:701. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14070701
69. Liu S, Wing YK, Hao Y, Li W, Zhang J, Zhang B. The associations of long-time mobile phone use with sleep disturbances and mental distress in technical college students: a prospective cohort study. Sleep Res Soc. (2019) 42:zsy213. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsy213
70. Ali A, Mehmood S, Farooq L, Arif H, Korai NA, Khan MAU. Influence of excessive mobile phone use on anxiety and academic performance among medical college students. J Pharm Res Int. (2019) 31:1–7. doi: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i630334
71. Dharmadhikari SP, Harshe SD, Bhide PP. Prevalence and correlates of excessive smartphone use among medical students: a cross-sectional study. Indian J Psychol Med. (2019) 41:549–55. doi: 10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_75_19
72. Huang Q, Li Y, Huang S, Qi J, Shao T, Chen X, et al. Smartphone use and sleep quality in Chinese college students: a preliminary study. Front Psychiatry. (2020) 11:352. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00352
75. Kim J, Hwang Y, Kang S, Kim M, Kim TS, Kim J, et al. Association between exposure to smartphones and ocular health in adolescents. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. (2016) 23:269–76. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2015.1136652
77. Montagni I, Guichard E, Carpenet C, Tzourio C, Kurth T. Screen time exposure and reporting of headaches in young adults: a cross-sectional study. Cephalalgia. (2016) 36:1020–7. doi: 10.1177/0333102415620286
79. Zhuang L, Wang L, Xu D, Wang Z, Liang R. Association between excessive smartphone use and cervical disc degeneration in young patients suffering from chronic neck pain. J Orthop Sci. (2020) 20:110–5. doi: 10.1016/j.jos.2020.02.009
81. Tymofiyeva O, Yuan JP, Kidambi R, Huang CY, Henje E, Rubinstein ML, et al. Neural correlates of smartphone dependence in adolescents. Front Hum Neurosci. (2020) 14:564629. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2020.564629
82. Chun JW, Choi J, Kim JY, Cho H, Ahn KJ, Nam JH, et al. Altered brain activity and the effect of personality traits in excessive smartphone use during facial emotion processing. Sci Rep. (2017) 7:12156. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-08824-y
83. Chun JW, Choi J, Cho H, Choi MR, Ahn KJ, Choi JS, et al. Role of frontostriatal connectivity in adolescents with excessive smartphone use. Front Psychiatry. (2018) 9:437. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00437
84. Lee D, Namkoong K, Lee J, Lee BO, Jung YC. Lateral orbitofrontal gray matter abnormalities in subjects with problematic smartphone use. J Behav Addict. (2019) 8:404–11. doi: 10.1556/2006.8.2019.50
85. Horvath J, Mundinger C, Schmitgen MM, Wolf ND, Sambataro F, Hirjak D, et al. Structural and functional correlates of smartphone addiction. Addict Behav. (2020) 105:106334. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106334
86. Paik SH, Park C, Kim JY, Chun W, Choi JS, Kim DJ. Prolonged bedtime smartphone use is associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity of the insula in adult smartphone users. Front Psychiatry. (2019) 10:516. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00516
87. Schmitgen MM, Horvath J, Mundinger C, Wolf ND, Sambataro F, Hirjak D, et al. Neural correlates of cue reactivity in individuals with smartphone addiction. Addict Behav. (2020) 108:106422. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106422
88. Brand M, Young KS, Laier C, Wölfling K, Potenza MN. Integrating psychological and neurobiological considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific internet-use disorders : an Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. (2016) 71:252–66. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.08.033
89. Brand M, Wegmann E, Stark R, Müller A, Wölfling K, Robbins TW, et al. The Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model for addictive behaviors: update, generalization to addictive behaviors beyond internet-use disorders, and specification of the process character of addictive behaviors. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. (2019) 104:1–10. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.06.032
90. Mestre-Bach G, Steward T, Jiménez-Murcia S, Fernández-Aranda F. Differences and similarities between compulsive buying and other addictive behaviors. Curr Addict Reports. (2017) 4:228–36. doi: 10.1007/s40429-017-0153-z
93. Weinstein AM, Feder K, Rosenberg K, Dannon P. Internet addiction- criteria evidence and treatment. In: Rosenberg KP, Feder CL, editors. Behavioral Addictions: Criteria, Evidence and Treatment. Burlington Elsevier Science USA (2014). p. 99–117.
96. Hutton JS, Dudley J, Horowitz-Kraus T, DeWitt T, Holland SK. Associations between screen-based media use and brain white matter integrity in preschool-aged children. J Am Med Assoc Pediatr. (2020) 174:e193869. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.3869
97. Paulus MP, Squeglia LM, Bagot K, Jacobus J, Kuplicki R, Breslin FJ, et al. Screen media activity and brain structure in youth: evidence for diverse structural correlation networks from the ABCD study. NeuroImage. (2019) 185:140–53. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.10.040
99. Moccia L, Pettorruso M, De Crescenzo F, De Risio L, di Nuzzo L, Martinotti G, et al. Neural correlates of cognitive control in gambling disorder: a systematic review of fMRI studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. (2017) 78:104–16. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.04.025
100. Di Nicola M, Ferri VR, Moccia L, Panaccione I, Strangio AM, Tedeschi D, et al. Gender differences and psychopathological features associated with addictive behaviors in adolescents. Front Psychiatry. (2017) 8:256. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00256
Keywords: internet addiction, smartphone addiction, problematic smartphone use, internet use disorder, excessive smartphone use
Citation: Wacks Y and Weinstein AM (2021) Excessive Smartphone Use Is Associated With Health Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults. Front. Psychiatry 12:669042. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.669042
Received: 17 February 2021; Accepted: 26 April 2021;
Published: 28 May 2021.
Edited by:Yasser Khazaal, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Reviewed by:Marco Di Nicola, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Italy
Jung-Seok Choi, Seoul Metropolitan Government - Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, South Korea
Copyright © 2021 Wacks and Weinstein. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.