ORIGINAL RESEARCH article
Volume 14 - 2023 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1163067
Increased thalamic gray matter volume induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment in patients with major depressive disorder
- 1Department of Psychiatry, Xijing Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China
- 2Department of Mental Health, Xi'an Medical College, Xi'an, China
- 3Department of Psychiatry, Yulin Fifth Hospital, Yulin, China
- 4Department of Psychiatry, Shi Jiazhuang Psychological Hospital, Shijiazhuang, China
- 5School of Biomedical Engineering, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China
Purpose: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective therapy in improving depressive symptoms in MDD patients, but the intrinsic mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence of rTMS on brain gray matter volume for alleviating depressive symptoms in MDD patients using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data.
Methods: Patients with first episode, unmedicated patients with MDD (n = 26), and healthy controls (n = 31) were selected for this study. Depressive symptoms were assessed before and after treatment by using the HAMD-17 score. High-frequency rTMS treatment was conducted in patients with MDD over 15 days. The rTMS treatment target is located at the F3 point of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data were collected before and after treatment to compare the changes in brain gray matter volume.
Results: Before treatment, patients with MDD had significantly reduced gray matter volumes in the right fusiform gyrus, left and right inferior frontal gyrus (triangular part), left inferior frontal gyrus (orbital part), left parahippocampal gyrus, left thalamus, right precuneus, right calcarine fissure, and right median cingulate gyrus compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05). After rTMS treatment, significant growth in gray matter volume of the bilateral thalamus was observed in depressed patients (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Bilateral thalamic gray matter volumes were enlarged in the thalamus of MDD patients after rTMS treatment and may be the underlying neural mechanism for the treatment of rTMS on depression.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent depressed mood, decreased interest, and cognitive impairment (1), with high morbidity, relapse, and mortality rate (2). More and more scholars have initiated to study the structural and functional brain alterations in MDD by using various emerging magnetic resonance techniques (3), aiming to provide essential objective imaging indicators for the early diagnosis of depressive disorder and to help clarify the pathogenesis of depressive disorder as well (4).
In 2000, Ashburner and Friston originally proposed the voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) method for the evaluation of the structural alterations in the gray matter of the brain (5). It is an objective, comprehensive, and automated means of analyzing brain magnetic resonance images based on voxel levels to quantify changes in the density and gray and white matter volume in relevant brain regions and to provide an accurate morphological analysis of the brain tissue structure (6). It was found that compared to healthy subjects, patients with first episode and unmedicated depressive disorder showed significant reductions in the gray matter in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortical area, dorsomedial prefrontal cortical area (DMPFC), and ventral lateral prefrontal cortical area (VLPFC). Compared to patients in remission from depressive disorder, their dorsolateral prefrontal cortical area, ventral lateral prefrontal cortical area, precuneus, inferior parietal lobule, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) all demonstrated a decline in gray matter structures (7).
The treatment of depressive disorder is primarily pharmacological, with antidepressant medication often starting to work after 2 weeks and a minimum of 4 weeks to determine whether the medication is effective, such as venlafaxine (8, 9). A total of 20–30% of the patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond to their first pharmacological and psychological treatment (10, 11). For patients with MDD who do not respond well to clinical first-line medication or who cannot tolerate the side effects of antidepressants (12), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has gained attention in the antidepressant field as a noninvasive and well-tolerated physical therapy (13). Boes et al. proved that rTMS could increase the cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). The cortical thickness values of the rACC vs. dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) predicted the effect of rTMS in the treatment of MDD as well (14). Lan et al. discovered that rTMS increased the gray matter density in the mPFC (15). Hayasaka et al. found that rTMS enlarged the gray matter volume in the hippocampus (16). In contrast, the results from the study conducted by Furtado et al. demonstrated that rTMS causes further shrinkage of gray matter volume in the left hippocampus of MDD patients (17).
At present, studies exploring the effects of rTMS on the gray matter structure of the brain in MDD are scarce, and the findings are fragmented and inconsistent. Nonetheless, the primary contribution of this study is the correlation between these anomalies and the effects of rTMS clinical treatments In this study, sMRI data were collected to compare the differences in gray matter volume between MDD patients before and after rTMS treatment and to explore the potential neural mechanisms of rTMS to improve depressive symptoms.
We performed a single-blind, randomized, control study based on the medical records of 26 patients with first episode and unmedicated depressive disorder consecutively from August 2020 to December 2021 from the outpatient clinic of the Department of Psychiatry, the First Affiliated Hospital, Air Force Medical University. Meanwhile, 31 healthy adults were recruited as controls.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
The inclusion criteria of the research subjects were as follows: (1) meeting the diagnostic criteria for MDD in DSM-5; (2) 18–45 years old; (3) HAMD-17 scores ≥18; (4) right-handedness, normal physical examination, EEG examination, and other indicators; and (5) those who signed informed consent. The exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) those suffering from severe physical diseases; (2) those with a previous history of traumatic brain injury or brain surgery; (3) those with a history of alcohol or substance abuse; (4) those with a history of other psychiatric or neurological disorders; (5) those with a high risk of suicide; (6) pregnant or lactating women; and (7) those with contraindications to MRI.
The inclusion criteria for healthy controls were (1) ages from 18 to 45 years and (2) right-handedness. The exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) severe physical illness; (2) previous history of traumatic brain injury or brain surgery; (3) history of alcohol or substance abuse; (4) history of psychiatric illness in patients; (5) pregnant or lactating women; and (6) contraindication to MRI.
The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University (Grant No. KY20202055-F-1). All subjects both read and understood the trial procedures and precautions and then signed the informed consent form to authorize participation.
Randomized controlled trial
A randomized controlled method was conducted. The computer Excel software was used to allocate random numbers to patients using a uniform distribution program, and finally, 26 patients were enrolled in the project.
Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment
The Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Therapy Instrument (CCY-1) (Yiruide Group, Wuhan, China) (figure-of-eight coil) was used to treat depressive patients with rTMS for 15 consecutive days, starting on the day of enrollment. The stimulation frequency was 10 Hz, and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (positioned with the international 10–20 system, corresponding to the electrode point F3) was used as the stimulation target. The intensity was 110% of the motor threshold, and each sequence consisted of 23 treatment sequences of 50 pulses with an interval of 35 s, 1,150 pulses in total (10 pulses per second, lasting for 5 s). The treatment was given once a day for 15 days.
Patients with MDD were given venlafaxine hydrochloride sustained-release capsules (Pfizer Prozac H20160382, specification: 75 mg) at a starting dose of 75 mg/day orally once daily in the morning, starting from the day of rTMS treatment. During rTMS treatment, the treatment dose was gradually titrated according to the patients' drug response and drug resistance, and the effective dose of 150 mg/day was reached within 15 days. All subjects maintained a regular diet and a stable drug dose throughout the study period.
The 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAMD-17) was used to assess depressive symptoms in the patient and control groups (18). The HAMD-17 assessment was performed at the baseline and on the 15th day of rTMS treatment in the patient group and on the day of enrollment in the control group.
Magnetic resonance data acquisition
Scans were performed on the day of enrollment and on the 15th day after treatment for depressive patients and on the day of enrollment for healthy controls. A General Motors 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging system (GE MR 750, USA) with an 8-channel head coil was used for signal reception. A 3D Bravo T1-weighted scan was performed with the following scan parameters: TR = 8.1 msx, TE = 3.2 ms, matrix = 256 × 256, layer thickness = 1 mm, and FA = 12. A total of 176 layers were scanned to cover the whole brain, using the posterior joints as the scan baseline.
VBM data processing analysis
The brain structure images were processed based on Matlab2018b and the VBM toolkit (http://dbm.neuro.uni-jena.de/vbm8) in SPM8 (https://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/software/spm8/). The images were manually corrected based on the anterior and posterior commissure. The structural images of the subjects were segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid by the default segmentation algorithm. The gray matter images were further aligned to MNI standard space using the DARTEL algorithm. Spatial smoothing was applied with an 8-mm full-width half-height Gaussian kernel, and the smoothed gray matter images were used for comparative analysis.
After pre-treatment, structural images were statistically analyzed using a general linear model with age, gender, education, and cranial volume as covariates and gray matter voxels as the basis. Furthermore, a two-sample t-test was used for comparison between the two groups, and a paired-sample t-test was used for comparison between patient groups before and after treatment, and the differences were considered statistically different after FDR correction with voxels > 50 and P < 0.05. The gray matter volume of different brain regions was extracted, and their correlations with HAMD-17 scores were analyzed. A p-value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Analysis of general demographic data
The study was divided into pre-treated MDD patients, post-treated MDD patients, and healthy controls. Among 26 cases enrolled in the MDD treatment group, nine were men and 17 were women. The mean age was 26.81 ± 8.24 years (ranging from 18 to 45 years), and the average disease duration was 5.11 ± 3.62 months. In the healthy control group, 11 patients were men and 20 were women, with 31 in total. The mean age was 28.72 ± 9.03 years (ranging from 18 to 45 years). There were no significant differences in age and gender composition between the two groups (P > 0.05; Table 1).
Assessment of the efficacy of depressive symptoms
The total HAMD-17 scores of depressive patients were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (P < 0.001), and the total HAMD-17 scores of MDD patients after treatment were significantly lower than the total scores before treatment (P < 0.001; Table 2).
Results of gray matter volume data
By analyzing the MRI images of the brains of MDD patients and healthy controls, gray matter volumes of the right fusiform gyrus, left and right inferior frontal gyrus (triangular part), left inferior frontal gyrus (orbital part), left parahippocampal gyrus, left thalamus, right precuneus, right calcarine fissure, and right median cingulate gyrus were significantly reduced in the MDD patient group before treatment compared with the healthy control group (P < 0.05). The results are detailed in Table 3 and Figure 1.
Figure 1. Volume-reduced gray matter in different brain regions in MDD patients and healthy controls.
The abovementioned gray matter volume-reduced brain regions were used as MASK to compare the volume changes in these brain regions after treatment, and there was a significant increase in bilateral thalamic gray matter volume in MDD patients after treatment (P < 0.05; Table 4; Figure 2).
Figure 2. Increased gray matter volume in different brain regions in MDD patients with post-treatment vs. pre-treatment.
F(2,86) = 4.036, P < 0.001.
Correlation of gray matter volumes with depressive symptoms
In the current study, the correlation between bilateral thalamic gray matter volume and HAMD-17 score after treatment was analyzed, but the results showed no marginal significance (p > 0.05).
In the current study, the left dorsolateral prefrontal lobe was selected as the treatment target, and the depressive symptoms of MDD patients were effectively alleviated after 15 days of rTMS treatment. In order to further explore the underlying neural mechanisms of behavioral changes, this study utilized VBM analysis and found that the gray matter volumes in the right fusiform gyrus, left and right inferior frontal gyrus (triangular part), left inferior frontal gyrus (orbital part), left parahippocampal gyrus, left thalamus, right precuneus, right calcarine fissure, and right median cingulate gyrus were significantly reduced in MDD patients, while bilateral thalamus volumes were significantly increased after rTMS treatment (19).
The fusiform gyrus is located in the temporal-parietal lobe and constitutes a core systemic part of the neural network for face perception (20), and a meta-analysis showed that different brain regions are involved in the processing of different emotional facial expressions (21). The fusiform gyrus showed a decline in activation during a gradual increase in facial expression of pleasure and activation during a gradual increase in expression of sadness (22). The results of the present study showed that the gray matter volume of the right fusiform gyrus was smaller in MDD than in healthy controls, suggesting that there may be abnormalities in the network modulation of face perception in MDD patients.
The inferior frontal gyrus is the bottom-most gyrus of the frontal lobe of the brain (23) and belongs to the prefrontal cortex, which has three distinct regions, the opercular part, the triangular part, and the orbital part, based on the cytoarchitecture (24). The inferior frontal gyrus plays a decisive role in language production and processing, learning, and memory (25). It has been shown that patients with MDD often have abnormalities in the inferior frontal gyrus and that the pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus is associated with a variety of psychological functions involving social interaction and language communication (26), and the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus is associated with auditory comprehension (27). Therefore, patients with MDD have reduced gray matter volume in this area, which may be related to clinical symptoms such as reluctance to communicate with people in MDD patients.
The precuneus has a large number of neural connections with the hippocampus and the thalamus (28) and is involved in the encoding and extraction of situational memory (29). Fletcher et al. found that the precuneus is an important neural basis for processing visual images in conscious memory and is closely related to emotion regulation (30). The precuneus locates in the medial parietal lobe, which regulates the binding between 5-hydroxytryptamine and receptors. Some scholars have found that parietal injury could cause a decline in cortical 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor function, while patients exhibit a depressive state (31), indicating that a smaller volume of the precuneus gray matter is associated with the development of the depressive disorder.
Neuroimaging findings have converged on thalamic involvement in macroscopic structural abnormalities in depression (32). Morphometric abnormalities have been observed across gray matter volume (GMV) reduction in the thalamus in MDD (33). Specifically, the thalamic volume reduction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of MDD and has been associated with the severity of depressive symptoms (34). Therefore, the reduced thalamus volume is considered to be a potential marker of MDD (35). Zhang et al. manifested that the gray matter volume of the bilateral thalamus was reduced (36); however, in the current study, only the left thalamic gray matter volume was reduced. This may be related to the participants receiving drug treatment, and in Zhang's study, most participants took medication for more than 1 month (36). Some studies have found that taking medication for more than 1 month may have an impact on the brain structure (37). Therefore, the use of medication may be one of the reasons for the differences in results.
This study investigated volumetric changes in the thalamus of drug-naive depressed patients before and after 15 days of rTMS treatment. The thalamus plays a critical role in the relay and distribution of afferent signals (38), with reciprocal connections to cortical and subcortical regions facilitating subcortical-cortical information exchange (39). High-frequency rTMS has been shown to modulate cortical excitability (40) and induce long-term potentiation (LTP), a key mechanism in the therapeutic effects of TMS, which enhances synaptic strength and can persist for extended periods (41). The current study targeted the left dorsolateral prefrontal lobe with 10 Hz high-frequency stimulation, resulting in enhanced neuroplasticity in the target-associated brain regions. Given the anatomical interconnectivity between the PFC and the thalamus, a potential increase in thalamic gray matter volume following rTMS treatment could occur via neuroplastic mechanisms. Several studies have demonstrated that an increase in thalamic gray matter volume may ameliorate depressive symptoms (42). However, no significant correlation between thalamic volume alterations and depressive symptoms was observed in this study.
Limitations and conclusion
The present study has some limitations that should be taken into account. First, the sample size was relatively small, which might have resulted in inadequate statistical power to detect potential group differences in behavior. A larger sample size might be necessary to clarify the group effects on rTMS treatment (43). Moreover, venlafaxine is the first of the SNRIs that provides dose-dependent norepinephrine reuptake inhibition; a dosage of 150 mg/day or higher is sufficient to produce noradrenergic activity, and it has low affinity for the postsynaptic receptors (44, 45). The latest review has demonstrated that brain function and structure changes were seen at least 4 weeks after antidepressant pharmacotherapy in patients with MDD (37). In the current study, venlafaxine, which was increased from 75 to 150 mg/day within 15 days during the rTMS treatment, may marginally affect the brain function, but a post-hoc test is difficult to control the confusion between the drug and the rTMS treatment results.
In conclusion, we compared changes in gray matter volume in MDD patients before and after rTMS treatment. Before treatment, MDD patients had structurally altered gray matter in the brain compared to healthy controls, which involved multiple brain regions including the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. These results demonstrated that brain alterations in depressive disorder are not single brain region alterations (46). No additional changes were found in gray matter volume after rTMS treatment, which may be linked to the short treatment duration. In future studies, we will expand the sample size, increase the homogeneity of patients in each group, and further explore the neural mechanisms of rTMS antidepressants in MDD patients.
Data availability statement
The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.
The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University (Grant No. KY20202055-F-1). The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study.
ZW, HW, and PZ conceived and designed the experiments. MG, DZ, XR, DL, and KY performed the experiments. BL, MG, and ZW analyzed the data. HW and PZ conceived the project and modified the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
This study was funded by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 81974215 to HW) and the Project of Natural Science of Shaanxi Science and Technology Department (No. 2021JQ-783).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
1. Zhang Y, Yang Y, Zhu L, Zhu Q, Jia Y, Zhang L, et al. Volumetric deficit within the fronto-limbic-striatal circuit in first-episode drug naïve patients with major depression disorder. Front Psychiatry. (2021) 11:600583. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.600583
2. Thase ME, Jacobsen PL, Hanson E, Xu R, Tolkoff M, Murthy NV. Vortioxetine 5, 10, and 20 mg significantly reduces the risk of relapse compared with placebo in patients with remitted major depressive disorder: The RESET study. J Affect Disord. (2022) 303:123–30. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.02.002
3. Pilmeyer J, Huijbers W, Lamerichs R, Jansen JF, Breeuwer M, Zinger S. Functional MRI in major depressive disorder: a review of findings, limitations, and future prospects. J Neuroimag. (2022) 32:582–95. doi: 10.1111/jon.13011
4. Lener MS, Iosifescu DV. In pursuit of neuroimaging biomarkers to guide treatment selection in major depressive disorder: a review of the literature. Ann N Y Acad Sci. (2015) 1344:50–65. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12759
6. Fusar-Poli P, Broome MR, Woolley JB, Johns LC, Tabraham P, Bramon E, et al. Altered brain function directly related to structural abnormalities in people at ultra high risk of psychosis: longitudinal VBM-fMRI study. J Psychiatric Res. (2011) 45:190–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.05.012
8. Gex-Fabry M, Balant-Gorgia AE, Balant LP, Rudaz S, Veuthey JL, Bertschy G. Time course of clinical response to venlafaxine: relevance of plasma level and chirality. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. (2004) 59:883–91. doi: 10.1007/s00228-003-0710-3
10. Loerinc AG, Meuret AE, Twohig MP, Rosenfield D, Bluett EJ, Craske MG. Response rates for CBT for anxiety disorders: need for standardized criteria. Clin Psychol Rev. (2015) 42:72–82. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2015.08.004
11. Cohen ES, Zantvoord JB, Wezenberg BN, Bockting CL, van Wingen GA. Magnetic resonance imaging for individual prediction of treatment response in major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Transl Psychiat. (2021) 11:168–77. doi: 10.1038/s41398-021-01286-x
12. Maneeton KB, Maneeton N, Woottiluk P, Likhitsathian S. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with antidepressants for the first episode of major depressive disorder. Curr Neuropharmacol. (2020) 18:852–60. doi: 10.2174/1570159X18666200221113134
13. McGirr A, Van den Eynde F, Tovar-Perdomo S, Fleck MP, Berlim MT. Effectiveness and acceptability of accelerated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treatment resistant major depressive disorder: an open label trial. J Affect Disord. (2015) 173:216–220. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.068
14. Boes AD, Uitermarkt BD, Albazron FM, Lan MJ, Liston C, Pascual-Leone A, et al. Rostral anterior cingulate cortex is a structural correlate of repetitive TMS treatment response in depression. Brain Stimul Basic Transl Clin Res Neuromodul. (2018) 11:575–81. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2018.01.029
15. Lan MJ, Chhetry BT, Liston C, Mann JJ, Dubin M. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex induces brain morphological changes in regions associated with a treatment resistant major depressive episode: an exploratory analysis. Brain Stimul. (2016) 9:577–83. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.02.011
16. Hayasaka S, Nakamura M, Noda Y, Izuno T, Saeki T, Iwanari H, et al. Lateralized hippocampal volume increase following high-frequency left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. (2017) 71:747–58. doi: 10.1111/pcn.12547
17. Furtado CP, Hoy KE, Maller JJ, Savage G, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB. An investigation of medial temporal lobe changes and cognition following antidepressant response: a prospective rTMS study. Brain Stimul. (2013) 6:346–54. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2012.06.006
19. Nahas Z, DeBrux C, Chandler V, Lorberbaum JP, Speer AM, Molloy MA, et al. Lack of significant changes on magnetic resonance scans before and after 2 weeks of daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for depression. J ECT. (2000) 16:380–90. doi: 10.1097/00124509-200012000-00008
21. Phan KL, Wager T, Taylor SF, Liberzon I. Functional neuroanatomy of emotion: a meta-analysis of emotion activation studies in PET and fMRI. Neuroimage. (2002) 16:331–48. doi: 10.1006/nimg.2002.1087
22. Surguladze S, Brammer MJ, Keedwell P, Giampietro V, Young AW, Travis MJ, et al. A differential pattern of neural response toward sad versus happy facial expressions in major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. (2005) 57:201–9. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.10.028
24. Porta-Casteràs D, Cano M, Camprodon JA, Loo C, Palao D, Soriano-Mas C, et al. A multimetric systematic review of fMRI findings in patients with MDD receiving ECT. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (2021) 108:110178. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2020.110178
25. Wang C, Zhang Z, Che L, Wu Y, Qian H, Guo X. The gray matter volume in superior frontal gyrus mediates the impact of reflection on emotion in Internet gaming addicts. Psychiatry Res Neuroimag. (2021) 310:111269. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2021.111269
26. Gibbons AS, Scarr E, McLean C, Sundram S, Dean B. Decreased muscarinic receptor binding in the frontal cortex of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder subjects. J Affect Disord. (2009) 116:184–91. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2008.11.015
27. Rolls ET, Cheng W, Du J, Wei D, Qiu J, et al. Functional connectivity of the right inferior frontal gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex in depression. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. (2020) 15:75–86. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsaa014
29. Cheng W, Rolls ET, Qiu J, Yang D, Ruan H, Wei D, et al. Functional connectivity of the precuneus in unmedicated patients with depression. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimag. (2018) 3:1040–9. doi: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.07.008
33. Lu Y, Liang H, Han D, Mo Y, Li Z, Cheng Y, et al. The volumetric and shape changes of the putamen and thalamus in first episode, untreated major depressive disorder. NeuroImage Clin. (2016) 11:658–66. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2016.04.008
34. Keun JTB, van Heese EM, Laansma MA, Weeland CJ, de Joode NT, van den Heuvel OA, et al. Structural assessment of thalamus morphology in brain disorders: a review and recommendation of thalamic nucleus segmentation and shape analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. (2021) 131:466–78. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.09.044
35. Webb CA, Weber M, Mundy EA, Killgore WDS. Reduced gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal cortex and thalamus as a function of mild depressive symptoms: a voxel based morphometric analysis. Psychol Med. (2014) 44:2833–43. doi: 10.1017/S0033291714000348
37. Cattarinussi G, Delvecchio G, Maggioni E, Bressi C, Brambilla P. Ultra-high field imaging in Major Depressive Disorder: a review of structural and functional studies. J Affect Disord. (2021) 290:65–73. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.04.056
38. Drevets WC, Videen TO, Price JL, Preskorn SH, Carmichael ST, Raichle ME. A functional anatomical study of unipolar depression. J Neurosci. (1992) 12:3628–41. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.12-09-03628.1992
40. Klomjai W, Lackmy-Vallée A, Roche N, Pradat-Diehl P, Marchand-Pauvert V, Katz R. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation in motor rehabilitation after stroke: an update. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. (2015) 58:220–4. doi: 10.1016/j.rehab.2015.05.006
41. Chervyakov AV, Chernyavsky AY, Sinitsyn DO, Piradov MA. Possible mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Front Hum Neurosci. (2015) 9:303. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00303
43. Yang TT, Ling X. Executive control dysfunction in subclinical depressive undergraduates: evidence from the attention network test. J Affect Disorder. (2019) 245:130–9. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.10.104
44. Strawn JR, Geracioti L, Rajdev N, Clemenza K, Levine A. Pharmacotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder in adult and pediatric patients: an evidencebased treatment review. Expert Opin Pharmacother. (2018) 19:1057–70. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2018.1491966
45. Zhou JJ, Wang X, Feng L, Xiao L, Yang R, Zhu XQ, et al. Venlafaxine vs. fluoxetine in postmenopausal women with major depressive disorder: an 8-week, randomized, single-blind, active-controlled study. BMC Psychia. (2021) 21:10. doi: 10.1186/s12888-021-03253-8
46. Han KM, Choi S, Jung J, Na KS, Yoon HK, Lee MS, et al. Cortical thickness, cortical and subcortical volume, and white matter integrity in patients with their first episode of major depression. J Affect Disord. (2014) 155:42–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.10.021
Keywords: major depressive disorder, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, voxel based morphometry, gray matter volume, thalamus
Citation: Wang Z, Zhang D, Guan M, Ren X, Li D, Yin K, Zhou P, Li B and Wang H (2023) Increased thalamic gray matter volume induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment in patients with major depressive disorder. Front. Psychiatry 14:1163067. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1163067
Received: 10 February 2023; Accepted: 11 April 2023;
Published: 12 May 2023.
Edited by:Magdalena Sowa-Kucma, University of Rzeszow, Poland
Reviewed by:Xi Jiang, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China
Xiaowei Ma, Central South University, China
Copyright © 2023 Wang, Zhang, Guan, Ren, Li, Yin, Zhou, Li and Wang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
†These authors have contributed equally to this work